1-1. वाक्=शब्द=sound - what is or may be heard; अर्थ= its meaning, import; इव= like; संपृक्तौ=नित्य सम्बन्ध=indissolubly cleaved together, ever embodied two-in-one entity पार्वती-परमेश्वर; वाक्= of speech, idiom; अर्थ= its meaning - import, the process of forming and relating ideas from listened sound; प्रतिपत्तये=संयक् ज्ञान अर्थम्= to derive pertinent idiom and ideation, language and paralanguage ; जगतः= of universe; पितरौ= parents; वन्दे= I adore; पार्वती=पार्वति; परम ईश्वरौ= supreme, lord - shiva.To derive the pertinent idiom and its ideation I adore the Parents of Universe, पार्वति - परमेश्वर, who are indissolubly cleaved together like sound and sense...An epic always bases itself on ideas, idioms, and their ideation. Though Goddess सरस्वति is the presiding deity of words, speech etc. the poet is reverently praying Shiva and [Arvati for more choice for pertinent words and their perfect meaning, as the poet कालिदास is a deemed goddess सरस्वति in male form पुम्भाव सरस्वति... And according to the tenets of vAyu पुराण, शिव and पार्वति are the deities for according exemplary meanings/words. शब्दजातम् अशेषन्तु धत्ते शर्वस्य वल्लभा | artha rUpam yadakhilam dhatte mugdhendndu shekharaH ||; शिव शक्तयोः विशिष्ट शब्द अर्थ अधि देवताः;The translation used here for Sanskrit poetics is not precise. If elaborate accounts are wanted, the works of AcArya Sushil Kumar De and others may please be consulted. However, only main outlines are given here for a bird's eye view of poetics.--o)0(o--Endnote of this page contains abbreviations used in here.--o)0(o--Here the first metaphor or a condensed simile is placed in वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ wherein the u.ma 1] vAk, 2] artha; sound and sense; u.me 1] pArvati, 2] parameshvara ; objects compared: शिव- पार्वति; sAdhAraNa dharma, underlying qualities or factors sampriktau - inseparability; sAdhAraNa vAcaka, general word: - इव, like, as with, hence it is केवल निरवयव श्रौति पूर्ण उपम.The genders should be the same of the objects, and objects compared. पार्वति - speech, are in fem. while शिव in masc. The inseparability of speech and its meaning is compared with the inseparability of name and form of any object in this universe नाम रूपाभ्याम् इदम् जगत्... Thus, though उपम, say condensed simile or metaphor is there right from Vedic literature, as in त्र्यम्बकम् यजामहे... उर्वारुकम् इव बन्धनात् मुक्तो... 'like a cucumber that separates itself from stalk, I aspire release...' etc., but कालिदास pleasantly plays with it.Many authorities have rendered magnificent commentaries on this particular verse, a jewel among all poetic works of कालिदास, but here, at the very outset of such a work for a complicated poetry, this much is said.For the right understanding (or the proper knowledge) of words, and their meanings, I bow down to pArvati and parameshvara, the greatest of the gods, who are the parents of the universe ( or creation ) and the perpetual relation ( or constant union) between whom is as close as the one subsisting between words and their meanings. - nandArgIkar.For the correct grasping of words and their sense I bow to pArvati and parameshvara who are the parents of the universe and are connected togther like words and their meaning. - Joglekar.क्व सूर्य प्रभवो वंशः क्व च अल्प विषया मतिः |तितीर्षुः दुस्तरम् मोहात् उडुपेनास्मि सागरम् || 1-21-2. सूर्य= Sun; प्रभवः [इयम्] वंशः= originated, [this] dynasty ; क्व= where; अल्प= meagre; विषया= subjects, learning; मतिः च= [my] intellect, even; क्व= where; दुः तरम्= un, navigable; सागरम्= ocean; मोहात्= by folly, inanely; उडुपेन=by a small barque; तितीर्षुः अस्मि= wish to go across, I am.Where the dynasty originated from Sun... where the meagre intellect of mine...with an intellect yet to be edified, am I inanely wishing to go across this unnavigable ocean called the solar dynasty by a small barque called my ersatz education? [1-2]Even today the poetic aestheticians have kept their debate pending on the poetic aesthetics used in this verse. Some say that काव्यार्थ निदर्शन अलन्कार is there in this verse, while others say it is ललिथ अलन्कार, while some more say it has दृष्टान्त अलन्कार.अलन्कारिक-स् like मुम्मटाचार्य long before said that 'going across the ocean called Solar dynasty in a small barque...' is असम्भवन्= अनुपद्यमानाः तात्पर्य विषय इति यावत्; वस्तुनो=वाक्यार्थयोः; सम्बन्धः= अन्वयः; उपमाम् परिकल्पयतीति - उपमा परिकल्पकः; but this is contradicted in बाल बोधिनी व्याख्य; न अत्र दृष्टान्ता अलन्कार बुद्धिः न कार्याः; उपमायाम् पर्यवसानात् वाक्यार्थ निदर्शनेयम्... बिम्ब प्रति बिम्बत्वे दृष्टानः Another treatise कुवलयानन्द says that ललिता अलन्कार is there and रसगन्गाधर contradicts this saying ललित अलन्कार is an ingredient of निदर्शन अलन्कार - केवलम् तत्र तात्पर्य्स्य गंयमानत्वात्... उडुपेन सागरम् तितीर्षुरस्मि... So, firstly let them resolve this, to name names. उडुप is a very small boat built with cane, and a leather hull for one or two navigators, still in use, esp., in South India.Where is the race sprung from the sun (the race which tmces its origfr to the sub ) ? and where my scanty powers of mind ? Methinks! from sheer folly I am bent upon crossing the ocean, though difficult to be passed over, by means of a small raft ( or a boat). - nandArgIkarThe page containing these lines in Joglekar's work are mutilated in our copy. Hence not presented.मन्दः कवि यशः प्रार्थी गमिष्यामि अपहास्यताम् |प्रांशु लभ्ये फले लोभात् उद् बाहुः इव वामनः || 1-31-3. मन्दः= dunce [like me] - u.me ; कवि यशः=कवीनाम् यद्यशः काव्य निर्माणेन तद् प्राथना शीलः [like vAlmIki, vyAsa]=[hence eminent] poet's, celebrity; प्रार्थी= desirous [fanciful] - bimba ; प्रांशु - उन्नत पुरुषेन= by tall one; लभ्ये फले= obtainable, fruit; लोभात्= covetously; उद् बाहुः= up, raised [elevating,] arms prati-bimba ; वामनः= ह्रस्व = short one - - u.mA ; इव= as with a - sA.vA ; अपहास्यताम्= mockery - sA.dha ; गमिष्यामि= go in will I be subjected to; [ किम्=or, what - make a fool of myself, or what...]Will I become the butt of ridicule if I were to covet the celebrity of an eminent poet, like a short fellow overstretching his arms for a fruit obtainable only by the tall, because I am still a dunce in this subject matter...? [1-3]The object 'fancy for poet's celebrity' is mirrored in 'covetous elevation of short man's arms' for an otherwise unobtainable fruit for both, with concomitant result of both landing in a laughable situation. The compound मन्दः कविः यशः प्रर्थी... if cleaved as मन्दः कविः; यशः प्रर्थि it becomes - dunce poet, renown seeker, then the topic of old poets will not be touched. Here upama is: anugAmitva, bimba prati bimba upama alankAra, with mixture in commonalities.अथवा कृत वाक् द्वारे वंशे अस्मिन् पूर्व सूरिभिः |मणौ वज्र समुत्कीर्णे सूत्रस्य इव अस्ति मे गतिः || 1-41-4. अथवा [पक्षान्तरे]=ओर् एल्से; पूर्व सूरिभिः= by earlier, poets; कृत वाक् द्वारे= रामायणादि प्रबन्थ रूपा या वाक् सैव द्वारम्= made , idiomatic speech, entrance पूर्व क्ऱित वआग्द्वारम् bimba ; अस्मिन् वंशे= in this [depiction,] of dynasty; वज्र [मणि वेधक सूची विशेषेण]= by diamond [edged tool for boring a diamond]; समुत्कीर्णे= drill-holed वज्र समुत्कीर्णम् - pratibimba; मणौ= in diamond; सूत्रस्य= for thread sUtram - u.mA ; इव= as with a [ thread in jewels] - sA.vA ; मृ=to me - kAlidAsa - u.me; गतिः=प्रवेशम्= [easy] entrance - sA.dha; अस्ति= will be there - वर्णनीये रघुवंशे मम वाक् प्रसारो अस्ति इति अर्थः; सूर्य वंशम् bimbam; मणि prati bimbam; hence alankAram - anugAmitva-bimba-prati-bimba-bhAva mishraNa .Or else, my course in depicting this dynasty might as well be easy through the idiomatic gateway already crafted by the earlier poets, like a diamond boreholed by a diamond-edged tool for an easy passage of thread. [1-4]'Though dunce, I have a way in through the epics already rendered by vAlmIki, vyAsa et al, which will hold the thread of my narration tight, like the thread that easily moves in and out of the bored diamonds, tightly holding many diamonds...' whereby my work will not be स्व कपोल कल्पितम्... not concocted by me... This indicates that the threads and strings of his narrations are drawn from the earlier poets, but they are not his whims or fancies, hence they are authentic. And Joglekar sys, 'Ramayana is the main store out of which कालिदास drew material for his रघुवंश...' of course, apart from 'wholesale' lifting from numerous पुराण-स्, mythologies, so disputing that is a waste.Or rather in this royal dynasty, where the door for poetical description has been opened by ancient ( or preceding) poets, there is also a way for me to enter; just as there is a passage for the thread, in the precious stone, ( previously ) bored through by means of a diamond-pin. - nandArgIkar.Or, perhaps there will be an ingress for me [in the narration of] this race wherein a passage has been constructed in the form of poetical composition by the learned of bygone days like the passage of aa thread in a diamond previously bored. -KMJसः अहम् आजन्म शुद्धानाम् आफलोदय कर्मणाम् |आसमुद्र क्षिति ईशानाम् आनाक रथ वर्त्मनाम् || 1-51-5. सः अहम् [मन्दो अपि, रघुवंशे लब्ध प्रवेशे, प्रतिजानीते]= such as I am [though dunce, I who entered the entrance made by earlier poets, and having known about raghu vamsham]; आ-जन्म शुद्धानाम्= right from birth, impeccable ones; आ-फलोदय कर्मणाम्= until fruition, deed-doers - those who have undertaken efforts till their frution; आ-समुद्र क्षिति ईशानाम्= unto ocean, lands, lords of; आ-नाक रथ वर्त्मनाम् [इन्द्र सहकारिणाम्]= up to heavens, chariots, pathway [as cooperants of इन्द्र]; this is ekAnvayam रघूणाम् अन्व्यम् वक्षे...= I poetise about the dynasts of raghu...' this refrain is to be tagged up to verse 8.Such as I am, perhaps a dunce, an account of रघु's dynasty is somewhat known to me through earlier poets; as such, I poetise about those dynasts who are impeccable right from their birth; who have undertaken effortful deeds till their fruition; who lorded lands unto oceans and who, as cooperants of , had driveways up to heavens for their chariots... [1-5]यथा विधि हुत अग्नीनाम् यथा काम अर्चित अर्थिनाम् |यथा अपराथ दण्डानाम् यथा काल प्रबोधिनाम् || 1-61-6. यथा विधि= as, ordained - विधिम् अन्-अतिक्रंय= without transgressing religious duty; हुत अग्नीनाम्= who oblated,who alwys maintined ritual-fires with proper oblations ; यथा काम= as, desired by the seekers - अभिलाषाम् अन्-अतिक्रंय = without overlooking the desires of supplicants; अर्चित अर्थिनाम् =who had gratified, supplicants; यथा= as to how - अपराथान् अन्-अतिक्रंय - without tresspassing limits with offenders - without third degree measures; अपराथान्= to offenders; दण्डानाम्= who became punishers; यथा काल= कालम् अन्-अतिक्रंय = without lapsing time; प्रबोधिनाम्= समय जागरूकता=who were awaking - having time-sense, vigilant in governance - चतुर्भिः विशेषनैः देवताय जन अतिथि सत्कार यथा अर्ह दन्ड-धरत्वम्, प्रजा पालन समय जागरूक्त्वानि विवक्षितानि.About those kings who ever had ever-lit propitiatory ritual-fires with un-transgressed religious duty; generous towards their supplicants gratifying all their appeals un-condescendingly; punishers of offenders according to offence, but un-aggressively; vigilant in governance, un-inadvertently... hence, they are the worthiest kings in kingcraft... [1-6]त्यागाय संभृत अर्थानाम् सत्याय मित भाषिणाम् |यशशे विजिगीषूणाम् प्रजायै गृह मेधिनाम् || 1-71-7. त्यागाय= for munificence; संभृत अर्थानाम्= सन्कलित धनानाम्= amassed, riches; सत्याय= for truth [speaking]; मित भाषिणाम्= those that have controlled, speech - reticent; यशशे= for pre-eminence, upper hand; विजिगीषूणाम्= ambitious conquerors; प्रजायै= for progeny; गृह मेधिनाम्= gR^haiH dAraiH medahnate - sangacChata iti gR^iha medinaH=get married to wives - एभिः विशेषणैः परोपकारत्वम्, सत्य वचन तात्पर्यम्, यशः परत्वम्, पितॄ उणाम् अनृण्य स्रद्धा च विवक्षितः.About those kings who amass riches only for the sake of munificence; reticent only for the sake of veraciousness; ambitious to campaign only for the sake of their upper hand and those that get married only for the sake of meetly progeny... hence, they are the conscientious kings... [1-7]Here महा महोपाध्याय मल्लिनाथ सूरि says वचन तात्पर्यम्= whatever is said in sentences is some meaning of an indiscernible thought. It may expand or contract, or at time nonexistent. In presenting these Sanskrit classics, the Indian scholars of yester years did not give any gist, synopsis, or translation for certain verses after giving elaborate word-to-word meanings. श्री ज़ोग्लेकर् has not given any translation here for verses from 5 to 9 as early as in 1916, and श्री काळे was also reluctant to put more sentences in his summation, though his notes were superb. Later it has become a fashion to omit, or place the original text as appendices, then to go on writing one's own words, calling translations. If a particular reader wishes to read the original word and translated word, then he/she had to sift through hundreds of pages. Therefore, we are bringing word for word separation right from Ramayana, and request the readers to go by the word for word section प्रति-पद-अर्थम् - more than this generalised, emphasised, detailed or reduced section called gist, synopsis or translation तात्पर्य. We also implore upon you to make some of your personal ideation in understanding, so that you also may come up with some new thoughts, called bottles, for these oldest possible wines, called Sanskrit classics, because translations are always approximations.शशवे अभ्यस्थ विद्यानाअम् यौवने विषय एषिणाम् |वार्थके मुनि वृत्तीनाम् योगेन अन्ते तनु त्यजताम् || 1-81-8. शशवे= in adolescence; अभ्यस्थ विद्यानाअम्= brahma carya AshramaH=studied in-depth, studies; यौवने=गृहस्त आश्रम=in adulthood; विषय एषिणाम्= material pleasures, desirers of [have a penchant]; वार्थके= वानप्रस्थ आश्रमे=in old-age; मुनि वृत्तीनाम्= saints, saintlike, in their activities gravitating towards those activities of sages and saints; योगेन=परमात्म ध्यानेन=when minds yoked to the Absolute; अन्ते= at end; तनु त्यजताम्= body, those that evict the soul from body like house; एतेन मोक्ष भावो विवक्षितः.About those who in their adolescence are masterly in studies; in adulthood predisposed for material pleasures; in old-age gravitating towards saintlike activities, and at end-time yoking their minds with the Absolute and ultimately evicting their souls from their bodies to attain मोक्ष... [1-8]रघूणाम् अन्वयम् वक्ष्ये तनु वाक् विभवो अपि सन् |तद् गुणैः कर्णम् आगत्य चापलाय प्रचोदितः || 1-91-9. तनु= a little; वाक्= alpa vANI prasAro api=expressive diction ; विभवः= glory; अपि सन्= even though, it is [it may be]; तत्= that [of their]; गुणैः= by merits; [ मदीय] कर्णम् आगत्य=[to my] ears, they came - I have an excellent ear, appreciation, taste; चापलाय=चापल कर्म, अविमृश्य करण रूपम्=not thinking back and forth, inadvertently, spontaneously regarding 1] literary style, etc., gracefully natural and unconstrained; 2] involuntary, not due to conscious volition of my poetic expertise; प्रचोदितः= [by such merits] motivated; रघूणाम् अन्वयम् वक्ष्ये= about raghu, dynasty, I am going to tell.I am going to spontaneously narrate about such-and-such kings in the lineage of raghu , because I have an excellent ear for the merits of those kings and I am motivated by those very merits, even if the glory of expressive diction is scanty with me... [1-9]तम् सन्तः श्रोतुम् अर्हन्ति सत् असत् व्यक्ति हेतवःहेम्नः संलक्ष्यते हि अग्नौ विशुद्धिः श्यामिका अपि वा || 1-101-10. तम्= of that epic; सत् असत् व्यक्ति हेतवः= merit, demerit, clarifying, causers [resolvers]; सन्तः= sagacious people; श्रोतुम् अर्हन्ति= to listen, apt; हेम्नः= of gold; विशुद्धिः= purity; श्यामिका अपि वा= lohAntara sansarga Adi doSo api vA=discoloured, [impurity owing to alloying with other metals,] even or; अग्नौ= in fire; संलक्ष्यते हि= marked [distinguished,] indeed.Sagacious people who are the resolvers in clarifying merit and demerit are apt to listen this, as fire indeed can distinguish whether the gold is pure or impure. [1-10]This is अर्धान्तर न्यास अलन्कार; सामान्येन विशेषस्य, विशेषेण सामान्यस वा यत् समर्धनम् तत् अर्थान्त न्यासम् justifying a common thing with uncommon, or an uncommon with a common factor - a kind of allusion.वैवस्वतो मनुः नाम माननीयो मनीषिणाम् |आसीत् महीक्षिताम् आद्यः प्रणवः चन्दसाम् इव || 1-111-11. मनीषिणाम्=मनस ईषिणो, धीराः, विद्वांस= for sensible people; माननीयः=आद्यः= an estimable one manISiNAm mAnanIyaH ubhava anvayi; चन्दसाम् [आद्यः]= for prosody - Veda-s; an adorable syllable प्रणवः= Om - u.mA; prati-bimba; इव= like - sA.vA; मही क्षिताम् आद्यः= among kings, first one [unexcelled] - bimba; वैवस्वतः=विवस्वत सूर्यस्य आपत्यम् पुमान्= man birthed from Sun vaivasvata manu - u.me; nAma=named; मनुः आसीत्= manu, was there.Firstly there was an unexcelled king among kings, namely वैवस्वत्-मनु, an estimable one for all sensible people, like the unexcelled mystic syllable ओम् for Veda-s. [1-11]The first Manu, the king of mankind, originated from the Sun. 'whatever least Manu says, that shall be good like medicine...' तैत्तरीय 2-2-10.महीक्षिताम् आद्यः - bimba - o; चन्दसाम् आद्यः prati-bimba, om; मनीषिणाम् माननीय - ubhaya anvyi; then this has shleSa, bimba pratibimba bhAva - ष्लिष्त प्रयोग when आद्य is ellipted to ओम्. 'The syllable ओम् and the sound अथ came out splitting the throat of brahma; hence those two are auspicious...' Hence the object and mirrored object share the commonality in उपम, condensed simile.तत् अन्वये शुद्धिमति प्रसूतः शुद्धिमत् तरः |दिलीप इति राजेन्दु इन्दुः क्षीर निधौ इव || 1-121-12. शुद्धिमति= immaculate [white]; तत् अन्वये= in that, lineage ; शुद्धिमत्= nirdoSe=with immaculacy [very white]; तरः= to the nth degree, highly; दिलीप इति=दिलीप, thus [known as]; राज इन्दु= king, [like] the moon - - u.me; क्षीर निधौ= from milk, ocean; इन्दुः=मोओन् -u.mA; इव= as with - sA.vA; प्रसूतः= took birth - anugAmitva sA.dha .In that immaculate linage a moonlike king, know as दिलीप, took birth with highest immaculacy, like the moon taking his birth from Milky Ocean. [1-12]Like the whitest moon born out of white Milky Ocean, irreproachable दिलीप took birth in a dynasty that which is beyond reproach - meaning a befitting king from Manu dynasty, and a pleasant one for one and all, like moon. Hence, moon is attached to both the solar dynasty and Milky Ocean.Hence this is अनुगामित्व, श्लेष, बिम्ब-प्रति बिम्ब मिश्रण अलन्कार. The dynasty is object, Milky Ocean mirrored object, and both mixed with the communality of प्रसूतः= taking birth. Here, शुद्धि=१] पवित्रत= holiness, purity; २] स्वच्छत्व= निर्दोषत्व= immaculacy; श्वेतत्व= whiteness etc are reflected.व्यूढ उरस्को वृषः स्कन्धः साल प्रांशुः महाभुजः |आत्म कर्म क्षमम् देहम् क्षात्रो धर्म इव आश्रितः || 1-131-13. व्यूढ उरस्कः= one with sizable, chest; वृषः स्कन्धः= bullish, scapulary muscle, say shoulder blade; साल प्रांशुः= unnata sAla prAnshuH=like sala tree, tallish one [in stature]; महा भुजः= mahA bAhuH=great arms [arms dexterous]; आत्म= his own; कर्म= for deeds [for kingship]; क्षमम्= befitting; देहम्= with physique; आश्रितः= assuming; क्षात्रः धर्म इव= kshatriya, duty, devoir, like [ मूर्तिमान् पराक्रम इव स्तितः=abided like the personification of valour; इति उत्प्रेख=hyperbole .]He who has a befitting physique for his heroic deeds in kingship, with a sizable chest, bullish shoulders, tallish stature like a सल tree, and with dextrous arms, abided as a personification of the devoir and valour of क्षत्रिय-s. [1-13]Here the first word in first stanza व्यूढोरक्सो is directly lifted from Valmiki Ramayana, bAla kANDa, 1-1-10. To prove the maxim that 'good poets steal, while the bad poets borrow...' in Ramayana it will be महा उरस्कः - गूढ जत्रुः. Here the poet changes thus making it as an impossible word for detection.सर्व अतिरिक्त सारेण सर्व तेजो अभिभावना |स्थितः सर्व उन्नतेन उर्वीम् क्रन्त्वा मेरुः इव आत्मना || 1-141-14. [सः दिलीप= he, that दिलीप]; सर्व अतिरिक्त सारेण [बलेन]= over everything, superlative to, in might; सर्व तेजः अभिभावना= anything, by resplendence, that looks down on spurns anything that is self-resplendent; सर्व उन्नतेन आत्मना= on all, imposing, by himself [with such a physique]; उर्वीम्= earth; क्रन्त्वा [आक्रंय]= having pervaded; मेरुः इव स्थितः= Mt. meru, like, he was there.He whose might is superlative over everything, whose resplendence spurns anything that is self-resplendent, whose physique is imposing among all physical bodies, that king दिलीप stood out pervading whole of the earth like all-superlative, all-resplendent, all-imposing Mt. मेरु that stands pervading all the earth ... [1-14]He is said to be self-resplendent because he emerged from the self-resplendent Sun, and any other thing is a lamp before sun, and hence like father like son. Though there is no physical comparability between a man and a mountain, their attributes compare one another, as a mountain lessens in a mirror. This is an allusion with object and mirrored-object with the communality clause pervading. श्लेष मूलक बिम्ब प्रतिबिम्ब भावोपम; u.mA/o - Mt. meru; u.me/oc - दिलीप; sA.dha - commonality - besetting the earth; sA.vA/cw like; loftiness=commonality; king bimba ; mountain= prati-bimba .आकार सदृश प्रज्ञः प्रज्ञया सदृश आगमः |आगमैः सदृश आरम्भ आरम्भ सडृशो उदयः || 1-151-15. आकार= [ उन्नत आकार =lofty, personality - like the towerng Mt . मेरु]; सदृश= conformable to [similar to]; [ उन्नत] प्रज्ञः=his [lofty] brilliance; सदृश= conformable with [consistent with]; आगमः= [ प्रज्ञा रूप शास्त्र परिश्रम]=scripturally majestic enterprises [set of formularies for kingcraft, and performing sacrifices etc]; आगमैः= enterprises; सदृश= conformable to [consistently]; आरम्भ= initiation; आरम्भ=[resolute] initiations; सदृशः= similar to; उदयः= phala siddhiH=yielding fructified results.His towering personality is conformable to his lofty brilliance, and that lofty brilliance is conformable with his scripturally majestic enterprises, and those enterprises are conformable to his resolute initiations, and his initiations conformably yield fructified results. [1-15]The upameya, oc, used in the first उपम अलन्कार, simile, becoming the upama, o, in the succeeding simile, and thus chaining similes in the same manner is known as रशन उपम, where रशन in Sanskrit means - a multi-stringed girdle chain, whose chains will be like festoons at waist.In the first simile, आकारम्=towering personality - u.ma/o ; प्रज्ञ= lofty brilliance - u.me/oc;In the second, प्रज्ञ=brilliance - - u.ma/o ; आगमम्= scriptural enterprises - u.me/oc ;In third simile, आगमम्=enterprises - u.ma/o ; आरम्भम्= endeavours - u.me/oc ;In fourth, आरम्भम्=endeavours - u.ma/o ; फल-सिद्धि= fructification - u.me/oc ;In all the similes common word - sA.vA is unsaid, but subsituted with उपम वाचक - सदृश, yet commonality - sA.dha - is unsaid. Hence all these are धर्म लुप्त - अर्थि उपम-स्, put togethr all becoming one - रशन उपम अलन्कार.भीम कान्तैः नृप गुणैः स बभूव उपजीविनाम् |अधृष्यः च अभिगंयः च यादो रत्नैः इव अर्णवः || 1-161-16. भीम= dreadful [traits - tejasa, प्रभाव, प्रताप आदि गुणाः=resplendence, valour, victorious disposition]; कान्तैः= shIla dAkshiNyAdi guNaiH=desirable [grace, favour, generosity traits]; नृप गुणैः= king's, traits - bimba ; उपजीविनाम्= for dependants; यादः च रत्नैः च= with crocodiles, sharks like capturers, also , with gemstones, also both prati-bimbA-s and anugAmi dharmA-s ; इव= as with - sA.vA; अर्णवः= ocean - u.mA; सः= he, dilIpa - u.me; बभूव= became; अधृष्यः च= unassailable - inaccessible, steely - also - sA.dha ; अभिगंयः च= accessible, also - sA.dha .With his kingly traits of dreadfulness in his resplendence, valour, victories etc he became inaccessible like an inaccessible ocean containing capturers like crocodiles, sharks etc for seafaring warriors or pirates, and yet with his desirable traits in grace, favour, and generosity he became accessible to his dependents, like the very same ocean that contains gemstones pearls, seafood etc becoming accessible for the pearl-divers, fisherfolk etc that depend on that ocean. [1-16]Apart from simile there is यथा सन्ख्य अलन्कार. Objects and mirrored objects said in seriatim. The traits required of a king are mainly two: अधृष्य गुणाः - inaccessibilty : तेजो बलंसत्त्ववत्त प्रथानः प्राप कालता | अधृष्य गुणान् एतान् नृपस्य मुनयो विदुः ||; and the other अभिगंय गुणाः accessiblity : कुलम् शीलम् दया दानम् धरमः सत्यम् कृतज्ञता | इति आदयो अभिगंयस्य नृपस्य कथता गुणाः || इति स्मृति. Though there are discussions about gender differences in simile, they are adjusted by bringing some subtle rules.रेखा मात्रम् अपि क्षुण्णात् आमनोः वर्त्मनम् परम् |न व्यतीयः प्रजाः तस्य नियन्तुः नेमि वृत्तयः || 1-171-17. नियन्तुः= shikshka, sArathi=helmsman [expert charioteer,] wheelman; तस्य= his [ दिलीप's]; प्रजाः= subjects ; नेमि= rim [of wheel]; वृत्तयः= चक्र धाराणाम् वृत्तयः=rotations moving in beaten tracks; आमनोः= from [time of] मनु; क्षुण्णात्= अभ्यस्तात्, प्रहताच्च=practised course of conduct / beaten track wheel grooves; वर्त्मनः= AcAra paddhateH= conducting themselves in traditional customs, traditionalists; परम्= adhikam=more; रेखा मात्रम् अपि= line, at least, even [even by hairbreadth]; न व्यतीयः= not, overstepped [out of line - failing to conform to a rule or convention, behaving inappropriately.]दिलीप being the wheelman, his subjects being the traditionalists, they have never gone out of the line of their traditional course of conduct practiced from the time of मनु-प्रजापति even by a hairbreadth, as with the rotating wheels of a chariot that do not veer out of the beaten track of wheel-grooves on roadway when steered by an expert charioteer. [1-17]Here rotations वृत्तयः are to be ellipted to people also - नेमीनाम् वृत्तयः - नेमि वृत्तयः; नेमि वृत्तयः इव वृत्तयः यासाम् ताः 'those that have beaten-track conduct and those that are not off the beaten track of tradition...' Then rotations o, u.mA; cyclic traditionary conduct of citizens oc, u.me; moving in beaten tracks - in 1] grooves of wheels, 2] grooves of tradition, unswervingly - c, sA.dha; as with, or like - cw, sA.vA. Then in this श्लेष अनु- प्राणित उपमान-वाचक-लुप्त-उपम is imbibed.प्रजानाम् एव भूति अर्थम् स ताभ्यो बलिम् अग्रहीत् |सहस्र गुणम् उत् षृष्टुम् आदत्ते हि रसम् रविः || 1-181-18. सः= he, दिलीप; प्रजानाम्= for people; भूति अर्थम् एव= for wellbeing, for welfare state or works, for the sake of, only; ताभ्यः= from them; बलिम्= SaSTa amsha rUpam karam=tax in one sixth part of produce; अग्रहीत्= taken; हि= indeed, reasonably; रविः= sun; सहस्र गुणम्= thousands, multiples of; उत् षृष्टुम्=utsarjana kriyA visheSa=to pour forth [rains, raindrops]; रसम्= essence [of waterdrops]; आदत्ते= takes.That king दिलीप takes only one sixth part of people's income as tax, that too for the sake of a welfare state, indeed, like the sun taking earthly water-drops only to indemnify her with multiples of raindrops thereof. [1-18]Justifying present activity with a remote activity अर्थान्तर न्यास somewhat transferred epithet.सेना परिच्छदः तस्य द्वयम् एव अर्थ साधनम् |शास्तेषु अकुण्ठिता बुद्धिः मौर्वी धनुषि च आतता || 1-191-19. तस्य= his; सेना= army; परिच्छदः= entourage [handling parasols, royal fans etc.] अर्थ साधनम्= purpose, achieving [aspects]; द्वयम् एव= two, only; शास्तेषु अकुण्ठिता बुद्धिः= in sciences [like political science, or economics etc., say kingcraft] unswerving, a mind [one aspect]; धनुषि आतता [आरोपिता] मौर्वी च= on bow, tautened, bowstring, also; [ नीति पुरस्सरम् एव शौर्यम् तस्य आभूत् इति भावः.]His army is just an entourage on par with those that handle the royal parasols and fans, while the real achievers of his purpose are but two; one is his unswerving mind in the sciences of kingcraft; while the other is his bow, ever tautened with bowstring. [1-19]तस्य संवृत मंत्रस्य गूढ आकार इन्गितस्य च |फल अनुमेयाः प्रारंभाः संस्काराः प्राक्तना इव || 1-201-20. संवृत मंत्रस्य= गुप्त विचार्यस्य=abstruse concepts; गूढ= invisible ; आकार= bhrUkuTI mukha rAgAdi AkAraH=body language; इन्गितस्य च= हृद्गत भावो=mind language, also; तस्य= his; प्रारंभाः= साम आदि उपाय प्रयोगा=tactical manoeuvring of kingcraft; प्राक्तना संस्काराः= पूर्व जन्म वासना=repercussions from past life - the recovery of things known to the soul in previous existences; इव= like; फल= kAryeNa=by fruits of action; अनुमेयाः= inferable.His tactical manoeuvres in kingcraft are inferable only by their fruition, just like the repercussions in this life are implied from past life, since his concepts, body-language or orientation are abstruse. [1-20]The repercussions from past life o, - u.mA; manoeuvres in kingcraft oc, u.me; like - c, sA.vA ; inference commonality, sA.dha; अनुगामि सहितोपम a simile with underlying quality.जुगोप आत्मानम् अत्रस्तः भेजे धर्मम् अनातुरः |अगृध्नुः आददे सः अर्थम् असक्तः सुखम् अन्वभूत् || 1-211-21. सः= he, दिलीप; अ त्रस्तः= without, consternation; आत्मानम् जुगोप= his own self, [his body,] conserved; अन् आतुरः= without, illness [even if he is with ill health, he felt like a healthy person to performe dutiful deeds]; धर्मम्= dutiful deeds; भेजे= ArjitavA=served, performed; अ गृध्नुः= without, avarice; अर्थम् आददे= riches, recouped; अ सक्तः= without, attachment [succumbing to temptation]; सुखम् अन्वभूत्= comforts, enjoyed.दिलीप conserved his body not out of his self-consternation, but to perform dutiful deeds, even if he were to be with ill health he performed dutiful deeds for duty's sake, he recouped riches without any personal avarice, and he enjoyed physical comforts without succumbing to temptations. [1-21]ज्ञाने मौनम् क्षमा शकतौ त्यागे श्लाघा विपर्ययः |गुणाः गुण अनुबंधित्वात् तस्य स प्रसवा इव || 1-221-22. ज्ञाने= para vR^ittanta parij~nAbe satyapi= even if he is aware of others' misdeeds; मौनम्= vA~NiyamaH=tongue-tied; शकतौ= even capable enough to retaliate, rebuke etc; क्षमा= apakAra sahanam=patience to bear animosity [ शक्तानाम् भूषणम् क्षम - चाणक्य]; त्यागे= while endowing munificence; श्लाघा= exaltation; विपर्ययः= abhAvaH=apathetic; तस्य गुणाः= his, attributes [like awareness, capability, munificence]; गुण= attributes [like silence, patience, apathy and other contradictory]; अनुबंधित्वात्= saha cAritvAt= coexistent factors; स प्रसवा इव= sodarAa iva=along with, born ones, like [ परस्प विरुद्धा अपि गुणाः तस्मिन् न विरोधेन एव स्थिता= like the children of same mother, they coexisted in him.]Though he is aware of others misdeeds he is tongue-tied, though capable enough to retaliate, rebuke etc he is patient with them, though he is highly exalted while endowing munificence he is apathetic to any magnification... thus his attributes like awareness, capability, munificence are coexistent in him along with mutually contradictory attributes like silence, patience, apathy, as though they all are the children of the same mother. [1-22]अनाकृष्यस्य विषयैः विद्यानाम् प्रार दृश्वनः |तस्य धर्म रतेः आसीत् वृद्धत्वम् जरसा विना || 1-231-23. विषयैः अन् आकृष्यस्य= by sensory subjects, not, attracted [dispassionate]; विद्यानाम्= veda veda angAnAm=in scriptures; प्रार दृश्वनः= up to end, one who has seen [knew scriptures in-depth, knowledgeable]; धर्म रतेः= in duty, delights in; तस्य= to him; विना जरसा= without, aging; वृद्धत्वम् आसीत्= old age, bechanced; [ तस्य राज्ञः ज्ञान वृद्धत्वम् आह.]As sensory subjects have not attracted him he is dispassionate, as a knowledgeable person he took delight only in duty... to such a person bechanced is senescent look without actual aging, as if he is an oldster wisdom-wise. [1-23]प्रजानाम् विनय आधानात् रक्षणात् भरणात् अपि |स पिता पितरः तासाम् केवलम् जन्म हेतवः || 1-241-24. प्रजानाम्= for people; विनय= sikshayAH=by training; आधानात्= by giving [orienting subjects in good conduct]; रक्षणात् भरणात् अपि= by protecting [from the factors of fear or danger,] by succouring [with welfare facilities,] even; सः= he; [ आभूत्] pitA=[became] father; पितरः तासाम्= parents, theirs [subjects]; केवलम्= just; जन्म हेतवः= for birthing, factors [AbhUt=became.]Orienting his subjects in good conduct, protecting them from fears or dangers, according succour with welfare facilities, king दिलीप became their de facto father while their actual parents remained parents de jure. [1-24]स्थितै दण्डयतः दण्ड्यान् परिणेतुः प्रसूतये |अपि अर्थ कामौ तस्य आस्ताम् धर्माय एव मनीषिणः || 1-251-25. दण्ड्यान्= those that are punishable; स्थितै= loka pratiSThAyai=for maintenance of system [of law and order]; दण्डयतः= he punished; प्रसूतये परिणेतुः= for progeny, he marries; मनीषिणः तस्य= viduSaH tasya=being a scholar, his; अर्थ कामौ अपि= purposes, pleasures, even; धर्माय एव आस्ताम्= in propriety, alone, abiding, maintained [ अर्थ कामयो अपि धर्म विशेषताम् आपादयन्.]Punishing the punishable only for the sake of law and order, wives only for the sake of proper progeny, that scholarly king maintained his own purposes and pleasures in propriety alone. [1-25]दुदोह गाम् स यज्ञाय सस्याय मघवा दिवम् |संपत् विनियमेन उभौ दधतुः भुवन द्वयम् || 1-261-26. सः= he, दिलीप; यज्ञाय= for Vedic-rituals; गाम्= bhuvam= earth; दुदोह= milked, - idiomatic English has this 'milking' - taxman is milking me dry - कर ग्रहणे रिक्ताम् चकार=milked earth for levies to conduct rituals]; मघवा= Indra; सस्याय= for crops; दिवम्= heaven; [dudoha=milked]; उभौ= both; संपत्= wealth; विनियमेन= paraspara AdAna prati dAnAbhyAm=reciprocally; भुवन द्वयम् दधतुः= nourished, two, realms; [ राजा यज्ञैः लोकम्, ः च वृष्टौ भूलोकम् पुपोषे]दिलीप milked the earth for levies only to conduct Vedic-rituals in order to appease indra, while indra milked heaven for causing rains on earth for crops in order to appease the king दिलीप and his subjects, thus both reciprocally exchanged prosperities in order to nourish a pair of realms, earth and heaven. [1-26]न किल अनुनयुः तस्य राजानो रक्षितुः यशः |व्यावृत्ता यत् परस्वेभ्यः श्रुतौ तस्करता स्थिता || 1-271-27. राजानः= [other] kings; रक्षितुः= being protector; [ दिलीप's]; तस्य यशः= his renown; न किल अनुनयुः= not, indeed, emulate; यत्= why because; तस्करता= thievery; परस्वेभ्यः= from others [riches]; व्यावृत्ता [वि आ वृत्]= made an about turn; श्रुतौ स्थिता= in listening, remained; न्यायेन शब्दे स्फुरिता न स्व रूपो अस्ति इति अर्थः= thievery remained in rulebooks as a name minus its functionality.Indeed the other kings could not emulate the fame of दिलीप, why because the name 'thievery' took an about-turn from the 'other men's riches...' and remained in all but a name, that too in rulebooks of law. [1-27]This verse is said to contain कालिदास's knowledge in grammar, logic, dialectics etc., in projecting an idea in unusual method. None of his subjects said Give me not poverty lest I steal... because there is plenty.द्वेष्यः अपि सम्मतः शिष्टः तस्य आर्तस्य यथा औषधम् |त्याज्यो दुष्टः प्रियो अपि असीत् अंगुली इव उरग क्षता || 1-281-28. शिष्टः= one with righteous conduct [principled person]; द्वेष्यः अपि= despicable, even if; यथा आर्तस्य औषधम्= as with, to a patient, [pungent] medicine ; तस्य सम्मतः असीत्= to him [to दिलीप,] agreeable, became; दुष्टः प्रियः अपि= unprincipled one, dearer, even if; उरग क्षता अंगुली इव= snake, fanged, finger, as with; त्याज्यः= discardable one; [ आसीत्=became.]Even if someone is despicable he becomes agreeable to दिलीप, in case if he were to be a principled person, as with a pungent medicine somehow agreeable to a patient; and even if someone is dearer to him he becomes discardable to him in case if he were to be an unprincipled person, as with a finger fanged by a snake, severable for anyone. [1-28]There are two sets of similes are there in this verse:1] medicine- ओ, उंआ; principled person oc, u.me ; as with cw, sA.vA; agreeability c, sA.dha ; pungency o ; despicability - mo ; to दिलीप - o ; to a patient mo .2] finger - o; unprincipled one - mo; discarding - commonality; cw - as with; dearer one - o; snake-fanged - mo; to दिलीप - o; to anyone discarding finger - mo.Thus there vis a mixture of undelying qualities, o and mo. Snake bitten parts, if possible, will be amputated immedietly.तम् वेधा विदधे नूनम् महाभूत समाधिना |तथा हि सर्वे तस्य आसन् पर अर्थ एक फला गुणाः || 1-291-29. वेधा= god Brahma; महाभूत समाधिना= five subtle elements, causative factors; नूनम्= must have; तम् विदधे= him [ दिलीप,] created; तथा हि= yes, indeed; सर्वे तस्य= all, his ; गुणाः= rUpa rasa Adi mahAbUta guNavat eva=elemental attributes, essential traits [of दिलीप]; पर अर्थ= catering to others, purpose; एक फला आसन्= one, fruit, becoming [yielding one fruit, called social welfare.]Creator-brahma must have created दिलीप with all the selfless five subtle elements... yes indeed! Because all his essential traits like रूप, रस, गन्ध form, essence, and scent - are unselfishly catering to others' purposes yielding only one fruit, called social welfare. [1-29]स वेला वप्र वलयाम् परिखी कृत सागराम् |अनन्य शासनाम् उर्वीम् शशास एक पुरीम् इव || 1-301-30. सः= he दिलीप; वेला= seashore; वप्र वलयाम्= प्राकार वेष्टा=[like] ramparts, surrounded; सागराम् परिखी कृत= ocean, as moat, on making; अन् अन्य शासनाम्= not, by others, ruled monorchial rule [monarch - from from Gr. मोनोस् 'अलोने' अर्खो 'तो रुले']; उर्वीम्= earth u.me ; शशास= ruled; एक पुरीम्= one, city - u.mA ; इव= like - - sA.vA .That दिलीप monarchised entire earth, hitherto un-umbrellaed under a single umbrella by any one king, as if she is his single capital bulwarked with seashores and moated with oceans... [1-30]The seashores as the surrounding rampart, oceans as moat, unruled by other kings - - these three factors relate to capital, while the earth is compared with a capital. वेला इव वप्र वलयाः यस्याः ताम् - on city's side; वेला एव वप्रवलया यस्याः ताम् - on earth's side; समास भेद आश्रयन and this 'unruled by others' belongs both to earth and capital - श्लेष - allusion.तस्य दाक्षिण्य रूढेन नाम्ना मगध वंश जा |पत्नी सुदक्षिण इति आसीत् अध्वरस्य इव दक्षिणा || 1-311-31. तस्य= his; मगध वंश जा= in magadha, dynasty, born in; दाक्षिण्य= दाक्षिण्यम्= पर च्छन्दा अनुवर्तनम्=one who deportst according to the wishes of those on whom she is dependent, and convincingly make others to accept her opinions, as her opinions will always be right those that have such दाक्षिण्यम् - sA.dha, anugAmi dharma ; रूढेन= प्रसिद्धम्=renowned one for such amicable conduct; नाम्ना सुदक्षिण= by name, सुदक्षिण - u.me ; इति= thus known as; अध्वरस्य= R^itvik, one who conducts Vedic- ritual and takes munificence for the culmination of that ritual, but now personified as Vedic-ritual itself; इव= like - sA.vA ; दक्षिणा= munificence - u.mA ; पत्नी= wife; आसीत्= [ सुदक्षिण, सार्थक नामधेयी] is there.A princess from मगध dynasty renowned for her amiable deportment and comportment is the inseparable wife of king दिलीप, like the ever wedded consort of यज्ञ-पुरुष, namely lady दक्षिण... hence, she is celebrated by her name lady सु-दक्षिण... meaning: an honorable beneficence chanced on king dilIpa... [1-31]A Vedic-ritual minus munificence and/or a wife is a mere farce. Charitableness and Vedic rituals are inseparably wedded together. दक्षिण is the name for the munificence given profusely in Vedic rituals, or even in household ceremonies, to priests, relative and/or friends. Hence that दक्षिण, the munificence, is now anthropomorphised goddess as Lady Munificence, and made as the consort of personified vedic-ritual - यज्ञ-पुरुष. The munificence given at the end of Vedic rituals, or even in ordinary ceremonies, is not the fees paid to the priest. It is to prove that the officiator desires higher worlds, at the munificence of all of his property, even his wife/wives. Please see Ramayana, Bala Kanda as to how dasharatha gives up everything to the priests that conduct अश्वमेध यज्ञ. Here, dilIpa- ओ; orchestrator of vedic-ritual - मो; wifehood and munificence - उक़्; objects are mirrored and mixed.कलत्रवन्तम् आत्मानम् अवरोधे महति अपि |तया मेने मनस्विन्या लक्ष्ंया च वसुध अधिपः || 1-321-32. वसुध अधिपः= land, lord [king]; अवरोधे= into which entry to others is prohibited=antaHpura=palace chamber of queens; महति अपि= greater, even if [many more better beauties are there as queens]; मनस्विन्या तया= one with heartiness [by सुदक्षिण]; लक्ष्ंया च= by Fortunate-Lady-of-Kingdom, also; आत्मानम्= himself; कलत्रवन्तम् मेने= having wife [really married to,] deemed.Though many better beauties are there as his queens in the palace-chambers of queens, he deemed himself to have a really wedded wife in this hearty lady सुदक्षिण, and obviously even with राज्य-लक्ष्मि, Fortunate-Lady-of-Kingdom. [1-32]As indicated by poet with the word लक्ष्ंया च= राज्य-लक्ष्ंया च.तस्याम् आत्मा अनुरूपायाम् अत्मम् जन्म समुत्सुकः |विल्ंबित फलैः कालम् स निनाय मनोरथैः || 1-331-33. सः= he [ दिलीप]; आत्म अनुरूपायाम्= self, in harmony with [similar]; तस्याम्= in her, in सुदक्षिण; अत्मम् जन्म= AtmanaH janmani putra rUpeNa utpattau=selfsame son; समुत्सुकः= enthusiastic to get; विल्म्बित फलैः= delayed, with fruition; मनोरथैः= kadA me putro bhavet iti AshAbhiH=with ambition as to when a son chances; कालम् निनाय= time, led off.Enthusiastic to get a selfsame son in self-similar wife सुदक्षिण, दिलीप frittered his time away while the fruition of his ambition is delayed. [1-33]संतान अर्थाय विधये स्व भुजात् अवतारिता |तेन धूः जगतः गुर्वी सचिवेषु निचिक्षपे || 1-341-34. तेन= by him [by दिलीप]; संतान= for progeny; अर्थाय= for the purpose of [begetting]; विधये= vidhi anuSThAnAya=for [performing] sacred duties; स्व भुजात्= from his own, shoulders; अव तारिता= down, loaded; जगतः= world's [the world of his kingdom] ; गुर्वी धूः= weighty, weight; सचिवेषु निचिक्षपे= among ministers, consigned.For the purpose of betting progeny by performing sacred duties king दिलीप downloaded the weighty weight of his worldly kingdom from his shoulders and consigned it to his ministers. [1-34]अथ अभ्यर्च विधातरम् प्रतौ पुत्र कांयया |तौ दंपती वशिष्टस्य गुरोः जग्मतुः आश्रमम् || 1-351-35. अथ= then; तौ दंपती= twosome, couple; अभ्यर्च विधातरम्= on worshipping, Creator [Brahma]; प्र यतौ= very, effortfully; पुत्र कांयया= son, yearning for; गुरोः वशिष्टस्य= mentor, वशिष्ठ's; अश्रमम् जग्मतुः= to hermitage, proceeded - this is refrain to every verse till they reach hermitage.Then that couple, king दिलीप and सुदक्षिण, on worshipping creator-brahma very effortfully, yearning for a son as they are, proceeded towards the hermitage of their mentor, sage वशिष्ठ. [1-35]स्निग्ध गंभीर निर्घोषम् एक स्यन्दनम् आस्थितौ |प्रावृषेण्यम् पयो वाहम् विद्युत् ऐरारवा इव || 1-361-36. स्निग्ध= madhura=nice; गभीर= booming; निर्घोषम्= having blare; एक स्यन्दनम्= in single, chariot; प्रावृषेण्यम्= in rainy season; पयः वाहम्= water, carrier - rainy black cloud; विद्युत्= lighting - u.mA ; ऐरारवा= elephant of Indra - u.mA ; इव= like [chariot] - sA.vA ; आस्थितौ= on settling [on mounting]; [from here up to verse 45 this refrain is to be annexed: तौ दंपती= that couple दिलीप, सुदक्षिण - u.me ; वशिष्टस्य गुरोः जग्मतुः आश्रमम्= that couple proceeded towards the hermitage of their mentor वशिष्ठ.Encharioted on a single chariot that is blaring boomingly but nicely like a rain-cloud, both dilIpa and sudakshiNa proceeded towards the hermitage of their mentor वशिष्ठ, as if both, a इरावती अन्द् ऐराव्त, i.e., a flash of lightning and ऐरावत, the majestic elephant of, are mounted on a single cloud in rainy season. [1-36]Indra's elephant airAvata is always associated with the flashes of lightning as they two are inseparable male-female-duo, while airavata is male and airAvatI, the flash, is female. ऐरावतो ऽभ्रो नाग तस्य स्त्री ऐरावती... they both ride on a raincloud at the same time.In this, lighting and elephant are - o; दिलीप and सुदक्षिण - oc; in that - सुदक्षिण is compared to the flash of lightning for her lightning-like beauty, and दिलीप to the silvern and elephantine majesty, where this ऐरवत of is a four tusked white skinned majestic elephant of इन्द्र, unlike black elephants of earth. The resonant sound of chariot is - o; cloud's thunder is - oc; both mounting on a single chariot -o; both elephant and lightning ascending on cloud mo.There is no separate state carriage to this queen. Both are in the same chariot means that both are with a single aim.मा भूत् आश्रम पीडा इति परिमेय पुरस्सरौ |अनुभाव विशेषात् तु सेना परिवृता इव || 1-371-37. मा भूत्= not, let there be; आश्रम पीडा= hermitage, perturbation ; इति [हेतोः]= that way, [for the reason of, thinking so]; परिमेय= minimal entourage; पुरस्सरौ= keeping in van; अनुभाव विशेषात् तु= tejo visheSAt tu=by their resplendence, hallmark of; सेना परिवृता = by [entire] army, surrounded by; इव= as though; [ जग्मतुः= proceeded.]While proceeding to hermitage they thought, Let there be less escort lest the hermitage is perturbed... and proceeded with a minimal entourage in their van; but owing to the hallmark of the resplendence even of that minimal entourage it appeared like an entire army. [1-37]सेव्यमानौ सुख स्पर्शैः साल निर्यास गन्धिभिः |पुष्प रेणु उत्किर्णैः वातैः आधूत वन राजिभिः || 1-381-38. सुख स्पर्शैः= comfortable, with touch; साल निर्यास गन्धिभिः= sala trees, trickling sap, with fragrances; पुष्प रेणु उत्किर्णैः= flowers, pollen, up-heaved [hence sightly]; आधूत= lightly winnowing; वन राजिभिः= forest, ranges ; वातैः सेव्यमानौ= by breezes, being adored; [jagmatuH=proceeded.]They proceeded while they are adored by the comfortable touch of the breezes that are balmy for they are wafting fragrance from the trickling sap of सल trees; sightly for they are whiffing the pollen upheaved from flowers, and lovely for they are lightly winnowing the ranges of forest trees. [1-38]मनोभिरामाः श्रुण्वन्तौ रथ नेमि स्वनो उन्मुखैः |सड्ज संवादिनीः केक्का द्विधा भिन्नाः शिखंडिभिः || 1-391-39. रथ नेमि स्वन= chariot's, wheel's, by sounds [rattles]; उत् मुखैः= up, faced [ शिखन्डिभिः]=by those that have crests [- peacocks]; द्विधा भिन्नाः= two way, split; षड्ज= SaDja - first of seven Indian music notes, as in octave - u.mA ; सवादिनीः= resembling in sound equality this सम्वादिनी is a उपमावाचक - sA.vA ; अनः अभिरामाः= heart, pleasing ones - sA.dha ; केका= screams of peacocks - u.me; श्रुण्वन्तौ= on listening; [jagmatuH=proceeded.] This verse has an अर्थि-पूर्ण उपम.They have travelled on and on listening to the heart-pleasing screams of peacocks that have raised their faces on listening to the rhythmic rattles of chariot wheelspin and started to scream in two split-pitches, exactly like the षड्ज musical notes that will be split into two pitches called च्युत broken; and अच्युत unbroken. [1-39]If an octave contains eight notes, its Indian counterpart also contains eight, but leaving the last one, they are called सप्त स्वर-स् - स, रि, ग, म, प, द, नि , but by adding one more स in next pitch, they total to an octave. These are musically called षड्जम, ऋषभ, गान्धार, मध्यम, पन्चम, धैवत, निषाद plus one more षड्ज in next scale. Then these peacocks and peahens are said to be screaming in two scales/pitches. On this single verse मल्लिनाथ सूरि comments one full A4 page commentary to establish कालिदास's knowledge in music.परस्पर अक्षि सादृश्यम् अदूरो उज्झित वर्त्मसु |मृग द्वन्देषु पश्यंतौ स्यन्दन आबद्ध दृष्टिषु || 1-401-40. मृग द्वन्देषु= deer, couples; वर्त्मसु= [those that have sidestepped from] pathway; अ दूर= not, far; उज्झित= left of; स्यन्दन आबद्ध दृष्टिषु= on chariot, fixatedly, having their look; परस्पर= each to each; अक्षि सादृश्यम्= eyes, similarity; पश्यंतौ= on seeing; [ जग्मतुः= proceeded.]The pairs of deer that have sidestepped from pathway to give way to the cruising chariot stood not far-flung on roadside, and started to look fixatedly at the chariot and at the chariot-farers; then each one from the pairs looked at the other admiring the similarity in each others eyes, viz. a male deer looked at सुदक्षिण's eyes to compare them with his helpmate's eyes; while a female deer looked at दिलीप's eyes to check with her helpmate's eyes; सुदक्षिण looked at male deer and compared it with the eyes of दिलीप, while दिलीप looked at a female deer and compared its eyes with the eyes of सुदक्षिण... then both दिलीप and सुदक्षिण laughed it off and proceeded further. [1-40]Pair of eyes of deer couple o , u.mA ; eyes of सुदक्षिण, दिलीप oc, u.me ; दैर्घ्य नैल्य अरुण चान्चल्यादिकम् - broadness, blackness, a little redness, nimbleness of eyes c, sA.dha - unsaid; and उपम वाचकम् - सादृश्यम् - similarity - c, sA.vA; then this is श्रौति - धर्म लुप्त उपम. If words like - alike, akin to, are not used, but words like सादृश, सांय, सम etc., are used it is श्रौति उपम. आ kind of hendiadys if two nouns or adjectives of similar or contingent meaning are used.श्रेणी बन्धात् वितन्वधिः स्थंभाम् तोरण स्रजम् |सारसैः कल निर्हार्द्रैः क्वचित् उन्नमित आननौ || 1-411-41. श्रेणी बन्धात्= in series, stringed [cranes in sky]; अ स्थभाम्= without, pillars piers, posts; तोरण स्रजम्= welcome-arch, festoons of flower; वितन्वधिः= [as though] arranging; कल निर्हार्द्रैः= avyakta madhura dhvanibhiH=having undecipherable yet melodious trills; सारसैः= [at such] cranes; क्वचित्= somewhere; उन्नमित आननौ= a little up raised, with faces; [ जग्मतुः=proceeded.]Serially stringed are the cranes on the sky as though they are the arranged festoons on a pierless welcomearch; seeing at such cranes that have undecipherable yet melodious trills that couple on chariot proceeded with their faces a little upraised. [1-41]पवनस्य अनुकूलत्वात् प्रर्धना सिद्धि शंशिनः |रजोभिः तुरग उत्कीर्णैः अस्पृष्ट अलक वेष्टनौ || 1-421-42. प्रर्धना सिद्धि शशिनः= prayer, fruition, denoting; पवनस्य अनुकूलत्वात्= gantavya dik abhimukhAt=[course of] wind, by propitiousness; तुरग उत्कीर्णैः= by horses, up-strewn ; रजोभिः= by dust; अ स्पृष्ट= un, touched; अलक= hair-locks [of queen]; वेष्टनौ= headgear [of king]; [ इति जग्मतुः=thus they proceeded.]The wind is denoting the fruition of their prayer for it's current is aslant their goal, thus the hair-locks of the queen or the headgear of the king are not in wild disarray with the dust up-strewn by the hieing hooves of galloping horses. [1-42]सरसीषु अरविन्दानाम् वीचि विक्षोभ शीतलम् |आमोदम् उपजिघ्रन्तौ स्व निश्श्वास अनुकारिणम् || 1-431-43. सरसीषु= in lakes; वीचि= by ripples; वि क्षोभ= by much, ruffling; शीतलम्= cooled; [ ऊर्मि सम्घटन शीतलम्]; अरविन्दानाम्= of lotuses; आमोदम्= parimalam=fragrance; स्व= their own; निश्श्वास= suspirations; अनुकारिणम्= imitative [akin to]; उपजिघ्रन्तौ= ghrANena gR^ihNantau=while smelling; [ इति जग्मतुः= thus they proceeded.]With much ruffled ripples the lotuses in lakes are muchly cooled, and the royal couple proceeded while smelling such a fragrance that is akin to the fragrance of their own suspires. [1-43]The longer a lotus wets itself in waves more abundant will be its fragrance even at a long-distance. There will be some fragrance in exhalations of anyone, but if that is on par with lotus's fragrance, that person belongs to उत्तम जाति लक्षण best pedigree.ग्रामेषु आत्म विसृष्टेषु यूप चिह्नेषु यज्वनाम् |अमोघाः प्रति गृह्णन्तौ अर्घ्य अनुपदम् आशिषः || 1-441-44. आत्म= by themselves; विसृष्टेषु= sva datteSu=endowed, beneficed by themselves to those villagers; यूप= yaj~nI pashu bandhana dAru visheSaH=sacrificial posts to which sacrificial animals are tied; चिह्नेषु= as landmarks of; ग्रामेषु= in such villages; अमोघाः= sa-phalAH=fruitful; आशिषः= blessings; यज्वनाम्= of orchestrators of Vedic-rituals in a scripturally correct manner - authorities on Vedic-rituals; अर्घ्य= pujAvidhiH, तदर्थम् द्रव्यम् अर्घ्यम्=oblatory waters, blest waters; अनुपदम्= anupadamanvak - anantaram= after [taking]; प्रति गृह्णन्तौ= in their turn, on receiving; [ तौ जग्मतुः=thus they proceeded.]On seeing sacrificial posts here and there, which are the landmarks of those villages, and which they themselves have previously beneficed to those villages for regular Vedic-rituals, they paused here and there at those ritual places to receive blest waters and fruitful blessings from the authorities on Vedic-rituals, as they two proceeded further. [1-44]हैयंग-वीनम् आदाय घोष वृद्धान् उपस्थितान् |नामधेयानि पृच्छन्तौ वन्यानाम् मार्ग शाखीनाम् || 1-451-45. हैयन्गवीनम्= sadyo ghR^itam=fresh butter resulting from milk, milked just yesterday; आदाय= on taking, on bringing; घोष वृद्धान्= villages of cowherds, village elders; उपस्थितान्= prAptAn= who chanced to come; वन्यानाम्= forest born, wild trees; मार्ग= on pathway; शाखीनाम्= spreading branches; नामधेयानि पृच्छन्तौ= names, on asking; [ तौ जग्मतुः= thus they proceeded.]Giving an audience to village elders who came there from nearby villages of cowherds bringing fresh butter as a royal present, and who gathered hither and thither on roadside, that royal couple interacted with them by asking about the names of wild trees that are growing on roadside shading the pathway with their branches, and thus they proceeded further. [1-45]This word हैयन्गवीनम् is said to be a peculiar word. ह्यः=only yesterday; स्तन गो दोह उद्भवम् - नवनीतम्; the butter that has come from milk milked just yesterday fresh and sweeter than the old stock.का अपि अभिभ्या तयोः आसीत् व्रजतोः शुद्ध वेषयोः |हिम निर्मुक्तयोः योगे चित्रा चन्द्रमसौः इव || 1-461-46. व्रजतोः= those who are journeying; शुद्ध वेषयोः= ujjvala naipathyayoH=with brilliant, [royal] costume; तयोः= for those two; हिम निर्मुक्तयोः= fog, released from; चित्रा चन्द्रमसौः इव= Star Citra, Moon, as with; योगे= when in togetherness [sati=while being so]; का अपि= kA pai nir vAcyA=something, even - that cannot be told apart, ineffable; अभिभ्या= shobhA= resplendence; आसीत्= bechanced.Then an ineffable resplendence has chanced on them who are journeying dressed in brilliant royal costumes like that of star chitra in togetherness with the moon when released from fog. [1-46]Star chitra, moon o, u.mA; सुदक्षिण, दिलीप oc, u.me; like - c, sA.vA ; chancing of resplendence commonality, sA.dha; brilliant royal attire - o; release from fog - mo; hence the metaphor contains underlying quality of the object analogous to the mirrored object.तत् तत् भूमि पतिः पत्नैः दर्शयन् प्रिय दर्शनः |अपि लन्घितम् अध्वान बुबुधे न बुध उपमः || 1-471-47. प्रिय दर्शनः= pleasant, in looks; भूमि पतिः= land, lord - king; तत् तत्= that, and that [objects of virtu]; पत्नैः दर्शयन्= to wife, while showing; लन्घितम् अपि [सुदूरम्] अध्वान= carried on [travelled,] even, [far-way-off] route; न बुबुधे= not, aware; [though he is] बुधः उपमः=बुधः सौमयम् उपम=to बुध, the Jupiter, similar to [in his awareness, cognisance and gentleness etc.]That pleasant looking king दिलीप travelled a long way showing this and that object of nature available on roadsides to his wife; though they travelled a long-way-off route like this, he is unaware as to how much they moved past their route, though he is similar to Jupiter in full-awareness of such itineraries, because he lost himself in thought while appreciating and describing those and those objects of nature to his queen. [1-47]स दुष्प्राप यशाः प्रापत् आश्रमम् श्रान्त वाहनः |सायम् संयमिनः तस्य मरर्षेः महिषी सखः || 1-481-48. दुष् प्राप= impossible [for others,] to attain; यशाः= renown ; श्रान्त वाहनः= on with overtired, vehicles [rather, horses]; महिषी सखः= queen, accompanied by; सः= he - दिलीप; सायम्= in evening; संयमिनः= niyamavat=conscientious sage; तस्य मरर्षेः= such an, eminent saint's; आश्रमम् प्रापत्= at hermitage, arrived.King दिलीप whose renown is unattainable by others has arrived at the hermitage of eminent and conscientious sage वशिष्ठ accompanied by his wife and overtired horses by the end of the day. [1-48]वन अन्तरात् उपावृत्तैः समित् कुश फल आहारैः |पूर्यमाणम् अदृश्य अग्नि प्रत्युदात्यैः तपस्विभिः || 1-491-49. वन अन्तरात्= from forest, another one, [rather fro nearby woods]; उप अवृत्तैः= nigh of, drawing; समित् कुश फल= fire-sticks for Fire Altar, sacred grass, fruits; आहारैः= bringing ones, on collecting; अदृश्य= invisible ; अग्नि= fire [Ritual fire, vaitAgni]; प्रतियुदात्यैः [प्रति उत् यात= towards them, getting up, going - Ritual Fires are getting up and going towards them in a greeting manner]; तपस्विभिः पूर्यमाणम्= by Vedic ascetics, being filled; [Ashramam prApat=at such a hermitage, they arrived.]A hermitage that is being now filled with Vedic ascetics returning from nearby woods on collecting ritual material sticks of firewood, sacred grass, and fruits etc for that day, while the ritual-fires situated in the threshold of hermitage are welcomingly ushering them in by getting up from their altars and rushing towards them, albeit in an invisible form, as with children rushing towards their father coming home... that royal couple approached such a hermitage where the affinity of father and son is maintained... [1-49]At times कालिदास explains intricate points of Veda-s. कामम् पितरम् पुत्राः प्रोषितवन्तम् प्रत्या धावन्ति - एवम् एतम् अग्नयः प्रत्या धावन्ति... 'as with the children rushing towards their homecoming father, the children-like Ritual-fires rush towards their fatherly Vedic ascetics, as they nourish them with fire...'आकीर्णम् ऋषि पत्नीनाम् उटज द्वार रोधिभिः |अपत्यैः इव नीवार भागधेय उचितैः मृगैः || 1-501-50. नीवार भागधेय उचितैः= nIvAra grain [wild rice,] wanting a part of, habituated to seek so ; उटज द्वार रोधिभिः= cottages, door of, blocking; मृगैः= with such a deer; ऋषि पत्नीनाम् अपत्यैः इव= sages', wives, [own] children, like; आकीर्णम्= overspread with; [ आश्रमम् प्रापत्=at such a hermitage, they arrived.]A hermitage overspread with deer habituated for seeking their part of wild-rice feed when the wives of sages come under the awnings of their cottages winnowing rice, and which deer block and do not leave the doorways until they are fed with handfuls of grain, as though they are the own children of the wives of sages thronging around their mothers... towards such a hermitage alive to motherly affection the royal couple has proceeded. [1-50]In this, the children - o; deer - oc; overspreading - uq; like, or as though - c, sA.vA ; and the blocking of doors and children clinging to the legs of their mothers - is an analogous action seeking their share of eatables. Motherly love of wives of sages for deer, and filial love of deer towards those motherly women is suggestive here.सेक अन्ते मुनि कन्याभिः तत् क्षण उज्झित वृक्षकम् |विसंभ्राय विहन्गानाम् आलवाल अंबु पायिनम् || 1-511-51. सेक अन्ते= watering the saplings, at the end of; मुनि कन्याभिः= by hermit's, young ladies; आलवाल= at base [in troughs]; अम्बु पायिनम्= water, swillers; विहन्गानाम्= for birds; विसम्भ्राय= for believability, to inculcate fearlessness; तत् क्षण= that, moment [as soon as]; उज्झित= left off [departed from]; वृक्षकम्= having trees [saplings.]A hermitage where young ladies quickly retraced their steps on watering plants, just to inculcate fearlessness from humankind in birds that are ready to swoop to swill fresh water from troughs of plants, towards such a hermitage that royal couple traced their steps. [1-51]The love shown at the birds and trees is indicated. There are many accounts of this in कालिदास's Shakuntala, showing gratitude and love to trees and birds. Sir William Jones puts it as: let us give water to those which have passed their flowering time; for our virtue will be the greater when it is wholly disinterested where virtue is primary.आतप अत्यय संक्षिप्त निवारासु निषादिभिः |मृगैः वर्तित रोमन्धम् उटज अंगण भूमिषु || 1-521-52. आतप= scorching [of sun]; अत्यय= apagame=when backed down, abated; संक्षिप्त= rAshikR^ita=heaped, collected; निवारासु= in wild grain [stockpiles]; उटज अन्गण भूमिषु= cottage, forefront, on grounds; निषादिभिः= on squatting down; मृगैः= by deer [on their arrival]; वर्तित= niSpAdita= make happen [start]; रो-मन्धम्= carvita caraNam= munching, chewing.That royal couple started towards a hermitage where deer, squatting nearby the heaps of wild grain collected and heaped up in the frontages of cottages, leisurely started to ruminate cud when the sun's scorch has abated. [1-52]In another way, the word निष्पादित also means grain winnowed and readied for use. Then the deer must be munching the readymade grain, instead of cud. C.f. Shakuntala: See under yon trees the hallowed grains which have been scattered on the ground, while the tender female parrots were feeding their unfledged young ill their pendent nest... so sayest SWJ.अभ्युत्थित अग्नि पिशुनैः अतिथीन् आश्रम उन्मुखान् |पुनानम् पवन उद्धूतैः धूमैः आहुति गंधिभिः || 1-531-53. धूमैः= by fumes; पवन उद्धूतैः आहुति गन्धिभिः= by wind, upheaved, of oblational items, fragrances [wafting]; अभ्युत्थित= upraised [flaring up]; अग्नि= fire from Altars; पिशुनैः= sUcakaiH=indicating [that they are ever flaring]; आश्रम उन्मुखान् अतिथीन्= hermitage, towards [incoming,] guests; पुनानम्= pavitrI kurvANam= tjey are sanctifying.Wafted by the wind fumes outgoing from that hermitage are wafting the fragrances of oblational items indicating that ritual-fires are ever ablaze in altars of fire, and those fumes are on the go, as if they are the emissaries of those sacred-fires, just to extend a hallowed welcome to incoming guests, on behalf of those holy fires. [1-53]अथ यंतारम् आदिश्य धुर्यान् विश्रामय इति सः |ताम् अवारोप्यत् पत्नीम् रथात् अवततार च || 1-541-54. अथ सः= then, he that दिलीप; धुर्यान्= dhuram vahati iti dhuryAH=those that carry swiftly - horses; विश्रामय इति= give rest, thus; आदिश्य यंतारम्= on directing; सारथिम्= charioteer; ताम् पत्नीम्= she, his wife; रथात् अवारोप्यत्= from chariot, alighted; अवततार च= [he] dismounted, too.On reaching the hermitage king dilIpa on alighting and helping the queen to alight from the chariot directed the charioteer to give rest to those fleetly horses. [1-54]तस्मै सभ्याः स भार्याय गोप्त्रे गुप्ततम इन्द्रियाः |अर्हणाम् अर्हते च चक्रुः मुनयो नय चक्षुषे || 1-551-55. सभ्याः= courteous, hospitable; गुप्त तम इन्द्रियाः= atyanta niyatam indriyAH=highly self-controlled; मुनयः= saints [of that hermitage]; स भार्याय= with, wife [who arrived]; गोप्त्रे= [their] protector ; नय चक्षुषे= shAstram eva chakshuH= having scriptures - rather ethics, for his eyes - vision ; तस्मै= to him, to दिलीप; अर्हते= prashaste=an exemplary one; अर्हणाम्= pUjAm= adorations; च चक्रुः= also, made [reverently welcomed.]The courteous and highly self-controlled saints of that hermitage have reverently welcomed दिलीप, because he is their protector, an exemplary king, one who has ethics for his vision and who has now come with his wife. [1-55]विधेः सायन्तनस्य अन्ते स ददर्श तपो निधिम् |अन्वासितम् अरुन्धत्या स्वाहाया इव हविर् भुजम् || 1-561-56. सः= he, दिलीप; अरुन्धत्या= lady अरुन्धति - वशिष्ठ's wife; अन्वासितम्= pashchAt upaveshanena, upAsitam=because she is seated alongside वशिष्ठ, attending to him; तपः निधिम्= asceticism, a treasure house for; स्वाहाया [अन्वासितम्]= with lady स्वाह देवि, [at his side]; हविः भुजम् इव= oblations, eater, like like firegod ; सायन्तनस्य विधेः अन्ते= evening [sunset time,] rituals, at the conclusion of rituals; ददर्श= seen/met.At that time, the treasure house of asceticism, sage वशिष्ठ, is sitting before ritual-fire performing evening rituals and appeared doubly brilliant, as with firegod whose brilliance will be doubled when in the close proximity of his consort, lady स्वाहा देवि, partaking of her brilliance; because the wife of that sage वशिष्ठ, lady अरुन्धति, is sitting in his close proximity who seemed to enrich that sage's brilliance with her own... then king dilIpa and his wife waited for the conclusion of eventide rituals and met the sage and his wife. [1-56]This is said to be the way of कालिदास, saying something connected to some rule, without referencing it. The rulebook says that any Vedic ritualist is not to be greeted while he is in performance, as his chain of chanting or attention will be broken. The visitors or others have to wait for the completion of his session. जपम् होमम् च कुर्वाणो न अभिवाद्यो द्विजो भवेत्... This lady स्वाह is not exactly the consort of firegod, but a suffix to Vedic hymns used at the time of offering each oblation into altar, saying इन्द्राय स्वाहा... मित्राय स्वाहा... वरुणाय स्वाहा... called स्वाहा कार. Each time when clarified butter is poured into fire with this suffix, स्वाहा, the tongues of fire will be ablaze, like a flashy bridegroom with his fashionable wife. So the firegod is said to have married to this hymnal suffix, lady स्वाहा देवि. Here firegod -o; वशिष्ठ - oc; like -cw; वशिष्ठ joined by अरुन्धति - o; firegod joined by स्वाह देवि - mo. Thereby their combined resplendence etc. are indicated.तयोः जगृहतुः पादौ राजा राज्ञी च मागधी |तौ गुरुः गुरु पत्नी च प्रीत्या प्रति नंदतु || 1-571-57. मागधी राज्ञी=मगध, princes from - सुदक्षिण; राजा च= king दिलीप, too; तयोः= their - वशिष्ठ, अरुन्धति; पादौ जगृहतुः= feet, taken - venerated at feet; गुरु पत्नी= mentor's, wife; गुरुः च= mentor, also; तौ= them two - venerators; प्रीत्या= affectionately; प्रति नन्दतु= in turn, gladdened sage and his wife blessed the venerators.Lady सुदक्षिण, the princes from मगध and her husband king दिलीप jointly touched the feet of both वशिष्ठ and lady अरुन्धति, then both the mentor and his wife in their turn affectionately blessed the venerators. [1-57]तम् आतिथ्य क्रिया शान्त रथ क्षोभ परिश्रमम् |प्रपच्छ कुशलम् राज्ये राज्य आश्रमम् मुनिम् मुनिः || 1-581-58. आतिथ्य क्रिया= guestship, formalities - with reception and hospitality; शान्त= lessened; रथ क्षोभ परिश्रमम्= by chariot, jolting travel, one who is tired - farigued after a long joggling drive; राज्य आश्रमम् मुनिम्=राज्यम् एव आश्रमम, तत्र मुनिम्, मुनि तुल्य इति अर्थः=in empire, [called a] hermitage, saintlike [king]; तम्= him, with दिलीप; मुनिः= saint वशिष्ठ; राज्ये कुशलम् प्रपच्छ= in kingdom, wellbeing, asked after.When दिलीप's tiredness caused by the long jolting ride of chariot is lessened with hospitalities, then saint वशिष्ठ asked after that saintlike king for a hermitage-like empire, about the wellbeing in kingdom. [1-58]अथ अधर्व निधेः तस्य विजित अरि पुरः पुरः |अर्थ्याम् अर्थ पतिः वाचम् आददे वदताम् वरः || 1-591-59. अथ= then; विजित अरि पुरः= one who conquered, enemies, citadels ; वदताम् वरः= among [sensible] speakers, the best one; अर्थ पतिः= riches, lord of - the king; अधर्व निधेः= adharva veda, a treasure trove of - वशिष्ठ; तस्य् पुरः= his, before - in the audience of saint; अर्थ्याम् वाचम्= meaningful, words; आददे= taken up - began to speak.Then that conqueror of the citadels of enemies and a best one among sensible speakers, namely king दिलीप, began to speak taking up meaningful words in the audience of the treasure trove of अथर्व वेद, namely वशिष्ठ. [1-59]अथर्व वेद'स् results are said to be instantaneous, while sage वशिष्ठ is regarded as the composer of some sections in it. Rama took birth only when Sage Rishyasringa conducted a ritual as contained in that Veda.उपपन्नम् ननु शिवम् सप्तसु अंगेषु यस्य मे |दैवीनाम् मानुषीणाम् च प्रतिकर्ता त्वम् आपदाम् || 1-601-60. सप्तसु अन्गेषु= in seven, limbs - sevenfold system of empire; शिवम् उपपन्नम्= serenity, is prevalent; ननु=अवधारणे= affirmatory expression=Indeed! Yes; यस्य= to whom, such like me; मृ= mine; दैवीनाम्= devebhya AgatanAm durbhiksha AdinAm=god decreed [calamities like earthquakes, famines etc]; मानुषीणाम् च= done by humans [like thievery, unrest etc]; आप्दाम्= suchlike problems; [ हृ गोरोः=oh, my mentor]; त्वम् प्रति-कर्ता= you are, counteracting agent - forestaller."Yes! My mentor, when you are there as forestaller of calamities either decreed by gods or done by humans and suchlike, prevalence of serenity in the sevenfold system of my empire is quiet natural... [1-60]The divisions in sevenfold system of an empire are 1] king 2] ministry 3] allies 4] treasury 5] state 6] citadel 7] armyतव मंत्र कृतो मन्त्रैः दूरात् प्रशमित अरिभिः |प्रत्यादिश्यन्ते इव मे दृष्ट लक्ष्य भिदः शराः || 1-611-61. दूरात्= from distance out of range [for unseen enemies]; प्रशमित अरिभिः= subdued, enemies; मन्त्र कृतः=मन्त्रान् कृतवान्=hymns, one who has composed [hymnologist] ; तव मन्त्रैः= with your, hymns [you can]; दृष्ट लक्ष्य भिदः= seen, target, cleavers; मे शराः= my, arrows; प्रति आदिश्यन्ते इव= return, comes back taking U-turn [rendered frivolous,] as though."When your holiness remaining in an out of range area are subduing even unseen enemies of mine with missile-like vedic-hymns you have composed, my arrows seem to be taking a u-turn and rendered frivolous, because they can cleave only the seen targets that too within the range... then why serenity should not prevail in my kingdom... [1-61]A touch of उत्प्रेख a ' मग्निलोक़ुइ ओर् गस्चोनदेद्' exaggeration and the suffix statement of earlier verse can be suffixed here and to later statements of दिलीप, if need be.हविः आवर्जितम् होतः त्वया विधिवत् अग्निषु |वृष्टिः भवति सस्यानाम् अवग्रह विशोषिणाम् || 1-621-62. होतः= oh, kindler of ritual-fire; त्वया= [when] by you; विधिवत्= canonically; अग्निषु= in fire; आवर्जितम् हविः= placed suitably [disposing,] oblation; अव-ग्रह=वर्ष प्रतिबन्धः=stoppage of rains famine; वि-शोषिणाम्=highly drying up one - famine; सस्यानाम्= for crops a ghastly famine for crops is averted; वृष्टिः भवति= rainfall, they are becoming oblations are becoming rain."Oh, kindler of ritual-fire, when you are disposing oblations into ritual-fire canonically, they are well disposed to become rainfalls on crops, lest ghastly famines would have dried them up... [1-62]पुरुष आयुष जीविन्यो निरान्तका निरीतयः |यत् मदीयाः प्रजाः तस्य हेतुः त्वत् ब्रह्म वर्चसम् || 1-631-63. मदीयाः प्रजाः= my, subjects; पुरुष आयुष जीविन्यः= man's, span of life, living 100 years in कलि युग; निर् ईतयः= without, blights; निर् आन्तका= not, hindered - fearlessly; इति यत्= this factor, that which is there; तस्य= for that; त्वत्= your; ब्रह्म [व्रत अध्यन संपत्ति]= brahma's, [owing to practise of scriptural injunctions]; वर्चसम्= resplendence ; हेतुः= is the reason."That which factor of my subjects' living to the full span of man's life, that too, unaffected by blights and fears etc is there, that is just by the dint of your resplendent scriptural practices... [1-63]The blights - any obscure force that is harmful or destructive, and they are six - 1] heavy rainfall, 2] no rainfall causing famines, 3] rodents, 4] swarms of grasshoppers, 5] migratory parrots, and a most peculiar blight - 6] king's continued interference .त्वया एवम् चिंतमानस्य गुरुणा ब्रह्म योनिना |सानुबन्धाः कथम् न स्युः संपदो मे निरापदः || 1-641-64. ब्रह्म योनिना= from brahma, took birth [you, the brainchild of brahma]; गुरुणा= by mentor; त्वया= suchlike you; एवम् चिन्तमानस्य= this way, while you are thinking [good for me]; निर् आपदः= untroubled one ; मे संपदः= my, riches; स अनुबन्धाः= with, continuity [unvarying] ; कथम्= how; न स्युः=विल्ल् not, be there."When the brainchild of brahma is my mentor who always thinks about my wellbeing, why should I become a troubled person or my fortunes vary? [1-64]किंतु वध्वाम् तव वै तस्याम् अदृष्ट सदृश प्रजम् |न माम् अवति सत् द्वीपा रत्न सूः अपि मेदिनी || 1-651-65. किंतु= however; तव वध्वाम्= your, daughter-in-law [ सुदक्षिण]; तस्याम्= in her; अ दृष्ट= un, seen [unforeseeable]; सदृश= selfsame; प्रजम्= offspring; माम्= to me; सत्= even if; द्वीपा= with continents; रत्न सूः अपि= jewels, spawning, though; मेदिनी= earth ; न= not; अवति= प्रीणाति=gladdens - me; वै= really.Though I husband whole of the earth, राज्य-लक्ष्मि, and though she spawned various continents and numerous gemstones under my sovereignty, I am not able to glory in her... because this daughter-in-law of yours and गृह-लक्ष्मि of mine, namely this queen सुदक्षिण, has not yet spawned any selfsame offspring of mine... [1-65]नूनम् मत्तः परम् वंश्याः पिण्ड विछेद दर्शिनः |न प्रकाम भुज श्राद्धे स्वधा सम्ग्रह तत्पराः || 1-661-66. परम् मत्तः= later, to me; पिण्ड= obsequial offerings; विछेद= discontinuity; दर्शिनः= on foreseeing; वंश्याः= lineage's [manes]; स्वधा= a suffix used in hymns while offerings are made to manes, indicative of obsequial eatables; सम्ग्रह तत्पराः= to store up, interested in [ अपि=even if]; श्राद्धे= in annual obsequies; प्रकाम भुज= to satiety, feasters; न= not; [ भवन्ति= they are becoming]; नूनम्= definitely.Simultaneously, my manes without faring sumptuously might be garnering something for a rainy day out of the offerings I make in the annual ceremonies of their beatification... definitely, because they must have foreseen a discontinuity in the obsequial offerings later to me as I am issueless... [1-66]मत् परम् दुर्लभम् मत्त्वा नूनम् आवर्जितम् मया |पयः पूर्वैः स्व निश्श्वासैः कवोष्णम् उपभुज्यते || 1-671-67. मत् परम्= to me, later; दुर्लभम् मत्त्वा= impossible, on thinking so; मया आवर्जितम्= by me, doled out; पयः= [libation of] water; पूर्वैः= by manes; स्व= their own; निश्श्वासैः= with sighs [of despair]; कवोष्णम्= a little tepid [on becoming]; उपभुज्यते= being sipped; नूनम्= definitely.Likewise, though my libation is just with ordinary water, thinking about the impossibility of getting at least water-oblation later to me, my manes must be sipping water warmed up with their sighs of despair... definite is that... [1-67]सः अहम् इज्या विशुद्ध आत्मा प्रजा लोप निमीलितः |प्रकाशः च अप्रकाशः च लोक-अलोकः इव अचलः || 1-681-68. इज्या विशुद्ध आत्मा= by Vedic-rituals, hallowed, soul [I have]; प्रजा लोप निमीलितः= offspring, lack of, shrunk into myself [beclouded]; सः अहम्= such as I am; प्रकाशः च अ-प्रकाशः च= luminous, also, non-luminous, also; लोक-अ-लोकः अचलः इव= Mt. लोकालोक , mountain, as with."Though my soul is in a brightly lit aureole as my indebtedness towards gods is discharged on my performing prescribed Vedic-rituals, yet, it is in the midst of gloom since I am still in debt towards my manes owing to the lack of an offspring... such as I am I am both luminous and non-luminous like Mt. लोक-अलोक... [1-68]लोक-अ-लोक is the name of a mythical mountain, dividing the visible world from the region of darkness. The Mt. लोकलोक is called also Mt. चक्रवाल is really the wall of clouds that bounds our horizon, all around us. The word literally means ' that which has the world of beings and also the world of no beings. The name has reference to the mythical conception that the लोकलोक is a 'round chain of mountains surrounding like a wall, the earth conceived to be flat like a disk, within which wall the sun and all the heavenly bodies move about, and beyond which pervades entire darkness. Cf. मत्स्य-पुरन नन्दार्गीकर्.This लोक-अलोक is a visualised mountain-like structure in which this solar system is moving and illuminated by sun or moon. Outside the circular wall of this mountain it will be pitch dark. Inside this mountain-like body one's soul will be radiant as he has performed five great sacrifices, namely १] ब्रह्म यज्ञ, २] पित्रि यज्ञ, ३] देव यज्ञ, ४] भूत यज्ञ, ५] मनुष्य यज्ञ - - sacrifices for the prosperity of 1] Brahma, 2] manes, 3] gods, 4] spirits, 5] humankind. Outside his body everything of king dilIpa has fallen into oblivion, as he is not seeing the possibility of progeny to continue the rituals to manes. बिम्ब, प्रतिबिम्ब भाव - श्लेष मिश्रोपम. The mountain -o; दिलीप - mo; radiance inside and out - c, sA.dha; like - c, sA.vA; .लोकान्तर सुखम् पुण्यम् तपो दान समुद्भवम् |संततिः शुद्ध वंश्या हि परत्र इह च शर्मणे || 1-691-69. तपः दान समुद्भवम्= from ascesis, endowments, emerging; पुण्यम्= merit; लोक अन्तर सुखम् हि= world, another, bliss causing, indeed; शुद्ध वंश्या संततिः तु= immaculate, from lineage, offspring, but; परत्र इह च= otherwhere, here, also; शर्मणे [भवति]= in complacency, [results in.]"The merit emerging from out of ascesis and endowments will indeed cause bliss only in other world, but an offspring from an immaculate lineage will result in complacency both here and otherwhere... [1-69]तया हीनम् विधातः माम् कथम् पश्यन् न दूयसे |सिक्त्वम् स्वयम् इव स्नेहात् वन्ध्यम् आश्रम् वृक्षकम् || 1-701-70. हृ विधातः= oh, ordainer; तया= by that [offspring]; हीनम्= lacking in; स्नेहात् स्वयम् सिक्त्वम्= with affection, yourself, watered; वन्ध्यम्= unfruitful; आश्रम् वृक्षकम् इव= hermitage, plant, like; माम्= me; पश्यन्- on seeing; कथम् न दूयसे= how, [you are] not, worried.How is that, oh, ordainer, you are impassive to see me issueless, as you would surely be when you behold a young plant of this hermitage that has been personally and affectionately watered by you fails to bear fruit in a proper season...? [1-70]Here the plant in hermitage - o; दिलीप - oc; worrying - c, sA.dha; like - c, sA.vA; . The lacking part - o; fruitlessness - mo; by you watered - plant, on plant's side; by you nurtured - myself, on दिलीप'स् side; hence the parison [parallel constructions] is in commonality obtaining in the object and mirrored object.असह्य पीडम् भगवन् ऋणम् अन्त्यम् अवेहि मे |अरुंतुदम् अलानम् इव अनिर्वाणस्य दन्तिनः || 1-711-71. हृ भगवन्= oh, god; मे अन्त्यम् ऋणम्= my, last, debt; अ निर्वाणस्य= on who has not taken a plunge dive, bathless; दन्तिनः= for elephant; अरुन्तुदम्=अरुन्=व्रणम्=wound; तुदम्= lacerating; अलानम्= tie-post; इव= like; अ सह्य पीडम्= not, tolerable, agony; अवेहि= you please know, consider."Oh, god, please consider the intolerable agony galling my soul continuously owing to the last uncleared debt of mine, namely the progeny, that which is standing firm like the tie-post of a tusker not only restraining that tied elephant to take bath but continuously galling it... [1-71]Every one that is born has three debts to pay off. He, who learns the Vedas, pays off the debt to sages; he, who conducts vedic rituals, pays off the debt to gods; and he, who begets a son, pays off the debt to the manes. The same applies to the king also, as both the king and elephant have three bounden duties; निर्वाण उथ्थान शयनानि त्रीणि गज कर्माणि; वेदाध्ययन, याजन, पुत्रोत्पत्ति - मनुष्य कर्माणि; for elephant - bathing, moving, sleeping; for a man - study of scriptures, performance of rituals, progeny. The word used for tie-post actually means a rope or chain by which elephants are tied to a post. But its eagerness to take a bath overlooks the object of binding, but to what it is bound.Here tusker -o; king - oc; like - c, sA.vA; ; childless king - o; bathless elephant - mo; pained by shackle of last debt - o; pained by the shackle of rope/chain to post - mo, and the pain is indicated in two different words.तस्मात् मुच्ये यथा तात संविधातुम् त्वम् अर्हसि |इक्ष्वाकूणाम् दुरापे अर्थे त्वत् अधीना हि सिद्धयः || 1-721-72. हृ तात= oh, sire; तस्मात्= therefore; यथा= as to how; मुच्ये= you get me released [from my last debt]; [ तथा= tht way]; संविधातुम्= effectuation; त्वम् अर्हसि= you are, apt to do; इक्ष्वाकूणाम्= for ikshvaku-s; दुरापे=दुष्प्रापे=unattainable ; अर्थे= purposes, objectives; सिद्धयः= [their] achievements; त्वत् अधीना हि=अरे in your, wardship, indeed."Therefore, oh, sire, it will be apt of you to make happen that which whereby I will be cleared of my debt towards my manes, namely obviating childlessness, since the achievement of unachievable objectives by the dynasts of इक्ष्वकु-s is indeed under your wardship..." Thus king दिलीप entreated sage वशिष्ठ. [1-72]इति विज्ञापितो राज्ञा ध्यानम् स्तिमित लोचनः |क्षण मात्रम् ऋषिः तस्थौ सुप्त मीन इव ह्रदः || 1-7373. इति राज्ञा विज्ञापितः= this way, by king, when entreated; ऋषिः= sage वशिष्ठ; ध्यान स्तिमित लोचनः= by thought, quieted, eyes; क्षण मात्रम्= for a moment, only; तस्थौ= became still; सुप्त मीन इव ह्रदः= slept, fish, like, lake.When the king entreated the sage वशिष्ठ in this way, the eyes of that sage are quieted meditatively and remained still for a moment like a stilly lake with slept fish. [1-73]This construct is an extolled one, as both the sleeping of fish and stupor to the thoughts in the lake like mind of sage - are inconceivable. Then, lake - o; sage - oc, mo; quietness - c, sA.dha; like - c, sA.vA; .सोऽपश्यत् प्रणिधाने संतति स्थम्भ कारणम् |भावित आत्मा भ्वो भर्तुः अथ एनम् प्रत्यक् बोधयत् || 1-7474. सः= he, वशिष्ठ; प्रणिधानेन= contemplatively; भावित आत्मा= one with sanctified, soul; भ्वः भर्तुः= earth's, lord - for king; संतति स्थम्भ कारणम्= progeny, impediment, cause of; अपश्यत्= has discerned; अथ एनम् प्रति बोधयत्= then, to him [king,] in turn, made known.Then that sage वशिष्ठ with a sanctified soul contemplatively discerned the cause of impediment in the progeny to king and made it known to the king in his turn. [1-74]पुरा शक्रम् उपस्थाय तव उर्वीम् प्रति यास्यतः |असीत् कल्प तरु च्छायम् आश्रिता सुरभिः पथि || 1-751-75. पुरा= once; शक्रम् उपस्थाय= indra, on serving; उर्वीम्= to earth; प्रति यास्यतः= in turn, journeyed [returning] ; तव पथि= your, on way; कल्प तरु च्छायम्= all-giving, tree, in shade of; आश्रिता= taking shelter; सुरभिः असीत्= all-bountiful cow, was there."Once, when you were returning from heaven on serving इन्द्र, there was the All- bountiful divine cow, namely सुरभि, on your way reposing under the shade of All-giving divine tree, namely कल्प-तरु... so sage vashiShTa started to narrate to dilIpa. [1-75]धर्म लोप भयात् राज्ञीम् ऋतु स्नाताम् अनुस्मरन् |प्रदक्षिण क्रिय अर्हायाम् तस्याम् त्वम् साधु न आचरः || 1-761-76. ऋतु स्नाताम्= after menstrual, bath; राज्ञीम्= about queen ; धर्म लोप भयात्= sacred obligation, faulting, from fear [fearing whether sacred obligation may be faulty, if he were to meet her on homecoming]; अनुस्मरन्= on thinking [whether to meet her or not, and engrossed in such a thought]; प्रदक्षिण क्रिय अर्हायाम्= circumambulation, deed of - one who is worthy to revererntly circumabulate; तस्याम्= in her [divine cow] regard; त्वम् साधु न आचरः= you, respectfully, not, performed.But you were engrossed in thinking while on way back to home, pondering, 'whether to meet the queen on homecoming, or whether any faulting of sacred obligation will occur in doing so, for she took her bath after menstruation...' and engrossed in such thoughts you did not deport yourself respectfully towards that divine cow, सुरभि, in circumambulating her, though she is worthy to be circumabulated by anyone... [1-76]The poet is suggesting good living in the subtext of one word, 'after the bath of periods.' The concept of this saying will be less explained to students as it contains info about the sacred obligation in husband's meeting her wife after menstruation. Even if she is one's own wife, she should be met on certain days after her monthly periods. Otherwise a blemish occurs, called रजो दोष; ऋतु काल अभिगामी स्यात् इति नियम इहिः... परिसन्ख्या विधिः, अत्र सर्वत्र पर्व वर्जम् - अमावास्यादीनि पर्वाणि वर्जयित्वा - इत्येतत् सम्बध्यते - कल्लूक भट्. The period is from day one to sixteenth day. First four days - out of question. In the remaining eleventh and thirteenth tabooed. In remaining ten - festive days, including no moon and full moon, are to be left out. During the other days, if met on even numbered days, sons take birth, and if on odd numbered days, it is daughters. This is the then family planning and the present day so-called safe, unsafe, and disgusting periods.अवजानासि माम् यस्मात् अतः ते न भविष्यति |मत् प्रसूतिम् अनाराध्य प्रजा इति त्वाम् शशाप सा || 1-771-77. यस्मात्= whereby; माम् अवजानासि= me, you disregard; अतः= thereby; मत् प्रसूतिम्= my, daughter; अन् आराध्य= without, reverencing; ते प्रजा न भविष्यति= to you, offspring, not, be there; इति सा त्वाम् शशाप= thus, she, you, cursed.Then that sacred cow सुरभि cursed you saying, Because you are neglectful of a mother-like me, you will be distanced from filial affection... and unless you hold my daughter नन्दिनि in reverence as reparation for this neglect, your offspring too will be in limbo... [1-77]स शापो न त्वया राजन् न च सारथिना श्रुतः |नदति आकाश गंगायाः स्रोतसि उद्दम दिग्गजे || 1-781-78. हृ राजन्= oh, king; उद्दम दिग्गजे= by ruttish, cardinal elephants ; आकाश गन्गायाः स्रोतसि= celestial, Ganga, torrents; नदति [सति]= strident [being so]; स शापः= that, curse; त्वया न श्रुतः= by you, not, heard; न सारथिना च= not, by charioteer, also."Oh, king, while the ruttish cardinal elephants were uproarious in the strident torrents of celestial River गन्ग that curse became inaudible either to you or to your charioteer... thus, sage vashiShTa continued to narrate to dilIpa. [1-78]ईप्सितम् तत् अवज्ञानात् विद्धि सार्गलम् आत्मनः |प्रतिबध्नाति हि श्रेयः पूज्य पूजा व्यतिक्रमः || 1-791-79. तत् अवज्ञानात्= her, by disregarding; आत्मनः ईप्सितम्= by you, your ambition; सार्गलम् =प्रति-बन्धम्=deterrent; विद्धि= know thus; पूज्य= venerable ones; पूजा= venerating; व्यतिक्रमः= transgression; श्रेयः= for prosperity; प्रतिबध्नाति हि= deters, indeed."Know that your disregarding her is the only deterrent of your ambition... transgression in venerating the venerable ones indeed deters one's own prosperity... [1-79]हविषे दीर्घ सत्रस्य सा च इदानीम् प्रचेतसः |भुजंग पिहित द्वारम् पातालम् अधितिष्टति || 1-801-80. सा च इदानीम्= she, too, presently; दीर्घ सत्रस्य= for a long running, Vedic ritual; प्रचेतसः हविषे= Rain-god's, for oblatory items [to provide ghee, milk etc]; भुजंग पिहित द्वारम्= by serpents, closed [guarded,] having door; पातालम्= netherworld; अधितिष्टति= abiding in."Providing offertories to a long-lasting Vedic-ritual of raingod, वरुण, that divine cow सुरभि is presently abiding in the netherworld where huge pack of guarding serpents stopple its entrance,... [1-80]सुताम् तदीयाम् सुरभेः कृत्वा प्रतिनिधिम् शुचिः |आराधय सपत्नीकः प्रीता कामदुघा हि सा || 1-811-81. तदीयाम् सुताम् सुरभेः= of her, of divine cow, daughter [namely नन्दिनि], of सुरभि'स् aka कामधेनु's; कृत्वा प्रतिनिधिम्=on making, as substitute; शुचिः=सुद्ध चित्त सन्=hallowed at heart; आराधय सपत्नीकः [पत्न्या सह वर्तत]= worship, together with your wife; हि=यस्मात् कारणात्=why because ; सा= she [that divine cow kAmadhenu]; प्रीता= on gladdening; काम दुघा= [your] wishes, milks [through her daughter नन्दिनि.]Make then the daughter of सुरभि, namely नन्दिनि, her mother's representative and worship her conjointly with your queen with a devout heart... why because, she that सुरभि gladdens that way and milks all your wishes through her daughter नन्दिनि..." Thus sage वशिष्ठ advised king दिलीप. [1-81]इति वादिन एव अस्य होतुः आहुति साधनम् |अनिन्द्या नंदिनी नाम धेनुः अववृते वनात् || 1-821-82. इति वादिन एव= thus, while discoursing, even; होतुः= havana shIlaH=ritual-minded; अस्य= his, वशिष्ठ's; आहुति साधनम्= oblatory items, means of; नंदिनी नाम= nandini, named; अ-निन्द्या धेनुः= inviolable [sacrosanct,] cow; धेनुः ववृते वनात् - such a cow returned from woods will be refrain up to verse 85.Even while he is discoursing thus, that ritual-minded वशिष्ठ's main asset for offertory items, the sacrosanct cow namely नन्दिनि, the daughter of सुरभि, returned from woods. [1-82]ललात उदयम् आभुग्नम् पल्लव स्निग्ध पाटला |बिभ्रति श्वेत रोम अंकम् संध्य इव शशिनम् नवम् || 1-831-83. पल्लव= tender coppery leaflets like; स्निग्ध= satiny; पाटला= light brownish red coloured [tawny complexion]; ललात उदयम्= on forehead, born; आभुग्नम्=ईषत् वक्रम्=a little crescent; श्वेत रोम अंकम्= whitish, hair, mark; बिभ्रति= bearing; नवम् शशिनम् संध्य इव= with new, moon, vespertine [colour of sky]; अववृते वनात्= returned, from woods.With light tawny and satiny complexion akin to the lightish and softish tawny tender leaflets for a touch, and with a little crescentic mark of whitish hair on her forehead, that sacred cow नन्दिनि that looked like the vespertine sky wearing the crescentic new-moon, returned from woods. [1-83]The sunset time sky -o; cow - co; like - c, sA.vA; ; bearing white crescentic mark - o; new crescent moon - mo. Though a cow and sky do not look similar in form, the complexions of both cow and sky do resemble. The ochry colour of evening sky, white mark on forehead etc indicate the poetic physique of sky. So are the softish tender leaves, tawniness colour etc are the comparable complexions. This has one full simile and two more with unsaid cw.भुवम् कोष्णेन कुण्डोध्नी मेध्येन अवभृथा अपि |प्रसवेण अभिवर्षन्ती वस्त आलोक प्रवर्तिना || 1-841-84. वस्त आलोक प्रवर्तिना= child [calf,] on seeing, issued forth; प्रसवेण= emitted [milk from udder]; कोष्णेन=किन्चित् उष्णेन= a little lukewarm; अवभृथा अपि= holy bath, ablution after completing a ritual, even than that; मेध्येन= पवित्रेण= sanctifying; भुवम् अभिवर्षन्ती=on earth, showeing [as if anointing with milk]; कुण्डोध्नी=कुण्डम् इव ऊधः=whose udder is pot-like.The warmish milk issuing forth from her pot-like udder at the very sight of her calf is as if anointing the earth and seeing at it is holier than the holy bath taken on completion of a Vedic-ritual, call अवब्ऱिथ स्नानम्, such an efficacious cow नन्दिनि returned from woods. [1-54]अवब्ऱिथ is a ceremony performed by a sacrificer with sixteen officiating priests at the end of a सोम sacrifice. The ceremony consists in collecting together all the remnants of the main sacrifice and throwing them into water after having given oblations to वरुण, raingod. This is the time when the sacrificer and his धर्मपत्नि bathe for the first time after the commencement of Vedic ritual. Sacrificers coming out of the river etc after अवब्ऱिथ bath are considered holy and any blessings given by them at this time, [or, just catching a sight of them] are believed to be peculiarly efficacious. C.f. बोधयन अग्नि ष्टोम सूत्र. - KMJरजः कणैः खुर उद्धूतैः स्पृशद्भिः गात्रम् अन्तिकात् |तीर्थ अभिषेक जाम् शुद्धिम् आदधाना महीक्षितः || 1-851-85. खुर उद्धूतैः= by hooves, upheaved; अन्तिकात् गात्रम् स्पृशद्भिः= nearby - at hand, body [of king,] while [dust is] touching; रजः कणैः= with dust particles; महीक्षितः= for king; तीर्थ अभिषेक जाम् शुद्धिम्= in holy rivers, taking holy bath, resulting from , depuration; आदधाना=कुर्वाणम्=bringing about.When dust particles upheaved by her hooves are sprinkled on the body of the king available close by, it looked as if she is depurating him with that dust-bath which is as good as taking depurative bath in holy rivers, such an efficacious cow नन्दिनि returned from woods. [1-85]ताम् पुण्य दर्शनाम् दृष्ट्वा निमित्तज्ञः तपोनिधिः |याज्यम् आशंशित अवंध्य प्रार्थनम् पुनः अब्रवीत् || 1-861-86. निमित्त ज्ञः= portents, knower of one who can ken into future; तपोनिधिः= ascesis, cache of; पुण्य दर्शनाम्= sanctifying, whose look is cow nandini with an auspicious aura around her; ताम् दृष्ट्वा= her [cow], on seeing; आशंशित= [king] expected to be; अ वंध्य प्रार्थनम्= not, to be childless , one praying for that; याज्यम्=तो the one who can make happen Vedic-rituals - to the king; पुनः अब्रवीत्= further, said.On seeing the cow नन्दिनि with an auspicious aura around her, that cache of ascesis sage वशिष्ठ who can ken into future, further said to the administrator of Vedic rituals who is now praying for the obliteration of his childlessness. [1-86]अदूर वर्तिनीम् सिद्धिम् राजन् विगणय आत्मनः |उपस्थिता इयम् कल्याणी नाम्नि कीर्तित एव यत् || 1-871-87. हृ राजन्= oh, king; यत्= by which reason; इयम् कल्याणी= this, propitious cow; नाम्नि कीर्तित एव= by name, when being extolled, only; उपस्थिता= drew nigh; [ तत्=thereby]; आत्मनः= to you; सिद्धिम्= fruition; अ दूर वर्तिनीम्= not, distantly moving ahead [it is also drawing nigh]; विगणय= count upon - deem it.Wherefore this propitious cow drew nigh of us just at the very mention of her name, oh, king, therefore you may count that the fruition of your desire is also drawing nigh of you, but not very faraway... [1-87]वन्य वृत्तिः इमाम् शश्वत् आत्म अनुगमनेन गाम् |विद्याम् अभ्यसनेन इव प्रसादयितुम् अर्हसि || 1-881-88. वन्य वृत्तिः= of woods, mode of life [becoming a woodlander]; इमाम् गाम्= this, cow be; शश्वत्= steadily; आत्म अनुगमनेन= by your, following [occupying yourself]; अभ्यसनेन विद्याम् इव= pursuantly, [learning] education, like ; प्रसादयितुम् अर्हसि= to gain her grace, apt of you."On becoming a woodlander you occupy yourself in steadily tending her, like gaining education by pursuant learning, and then it will be apt of you to gain her grace in this way... [1-88]प्रस्थितायाम् प्रतिष्टेथाः स्थितायाम् स्थितिम् आचरेः |निषिण्णायाम् निषीद अस्याम् पीत अंभसि पिबेः अपः || 1-891-89. अस्याम्= of her; प्रस्थितायाम् [सत्याम्]= starting out [becoming true]; प्रतिष्टेथाः= you start off; स्थितायाम् स्थितिम् आचरेः= on her stopping, stoppage, you do [you stop over, don't hasten her like an animal]; निषिण्णायाम् निषीद= on her sitting [reclining,] you recline; पीत अंभसि= on drinking, water; अपः पिबेः= water, you drink."If she starts out you too shall start off, but don't restrain her, if she stops you too shall stop over, but don't hasten her, if she reclines you too shall recline, but don't chasten her, and you shall drink water only after her drinking water is over... [1-89]वधूः भक्तिमती च एनाम् अर्चिताम् आतपोवनात् |प्रयता प्रातः अन्वेतु सायम् प्रत्युद् व्रजेत् अपि || 1-901-90. वधूः= [our] daughter-in-law [or, your wife]; च= too; भक्ति मती= devout, minded [devoutly]; प्रयताब्= observantly; अर्चिताम् एनाम्= let her worship the cow first, then follow it; प्रातः= in mornings; आतपोवनात्= all hermitage woodlands; अन्वेतु= anu yetu=follow her; सायम् अपि= in evenings, even; प्रत्युद् व्रजेत् [प्रति उत् व्रजेत्]= go in front of her and lead her welcomingly."Let our daughter-in-law, say your wife lady सुदक्षिण too, worship this cow devoutly and observantly; let her follow the cow wherever she goes in all the woodlands of hermitage in mornings; and in evenings let her go forward towards cow to lead her home welcomingly... [1-90]इति आप्रसादात् अस्याः त्वम् परिचर्यापरो भव |अविघ्नमस्तु ते स्थेया पिता इव धुरि पुत्रिणाम् || 1-911-91. इति= this way; त्वम्= you; आप्रसादात्= until [you get her] grace; अस्याः परि चर्या परः भव= in her, overall, services, dedicate yourself ; ते अ विघ्नम् अस्तु= for you, no, h इन्द्रnce, let there be; पिता इव= father, like [your father like, or like any father]; पुत्रिणाम्= having good sons; धुरि स्थेया= in van, you abide."This way, you dedicate yourself in her overall services until you get her grace... may there be no obstacles to you, and may you like a worthy father stand in the forefront of those mortals that are blessed with worthy sons... Thus sage वशिष्ठ advised king दिलीप. [1-91]तथा इति प्रतिजग्राह प्रीतिमान् स परिग्रहः |आदेशम् देश कालज्ञः शिष्यः शाशितुः आनतः || 1-921-92. देश काल ज्ञः= place, time, knower [pragmatic one]; प्रीतिमान्= pleased at heart; शिष्यः=as a true disciple [of वशिष्ठ]; स परिग्रहः=स पत्नीक सन्=along with, wife; आनतः= head bent [reverently] ; शाशितुः आदेशम्= ordering sage's, order; तथा इति= [saying] so, be it; प्रतिजग्राह= received [accepted.]दिलीप being a pragmatic king and a true disciple of वशिष्ठ is pleased at heart, and he along with his wife reverently accepted the order of sage saying, So be it... [1-92]अथ प्रदोषे दोषज्ञः संवेशाय विशाम् पतिम् |सूनुः सूनृतवाक् स्रष्टुः विससर्ज ऊर्जित श्रियम् || 1-931-93. अथ= then; प्रदोषे= in late evening; दोष ज्ञः= wrongs, knower - scholar; सूनृत वाक्=सत्य प्रिय वाक्= who speaks truthful, pleasant words; स्रष्टुः सूनुः= Creator's, son - brainchild of brahma, वशिष्ठ; ऊर्जित श्रियम्= one on whom fortune is going to dawn - दिलीप; विशाम् पतिम्= peoples, lord - king ; संवेशाय विससर्ज= to have sleep, bade.Then in late evening that scholarly brainchild of brahma who always speaks truthful and pleasant words, namely वशिष्ट, bade king दिलीप on whom fortune is going dawn, to retire for the night. [1-93]सत्याम् अपि तपः सिद्धौ नियम अपेक्षया मुनिः |कल्पवित् कल्पयामास वन्याम् एव अस्य संविधानम् || 1-941-94. कल्पवित्=व्रत चर्या प्रयोग अभिज्ञ= one who knows the practising of vows; मुनिः= saint; तपः सिद्धौ= by ascesis, realized [powers to give royal accommodation to king and queen]; सत्याम् अपि= true, even; नियम अपेक्षया= regulations [of vow,] keeping in view; अस्य= to this [ दिलीप]; वन्याम् एव= forest produce, only; संविधानम्= mode of living; कल्पयामास= started to arrange.Himself being the knower of ways and means of vows, besides being a saint, and even though his possessing powers to create anything by virtue of his ascesis is true in creating royal palaces to palanquins from thin air, but by keeping the regulations of vows to be undertaken by दिलीप in view, वशिष्ट arranged only for the bare necessities from the forest produce even to this royal couple, like mats, pots, and jute outfits essential for the hermitic mode of living henceforth. [1-94]निर्दिष्टाम् कुलपतिना स पर्णशालाम्अध्यास्य प्रयतः परिग्रह द्वितीयः |तच्छिष्याध्यननिवेदितावसानाम्संविष्टः कुश शयने निशाअम् निनाय || 1-951-95. सः= he that दिलीप; कुलपतिना=मुनि कुल ईश्वरेण=vice-chancellor of saints community, वशिष्ठ [where God Brahma is the Chancellor, and where कुलपति is still the title given to Vice-chancellors of Indian Univ. baptised by kAlidAsa]; निर्दिष्टाम् पर्णशालाम्= determined, in cottage; अध्यास्य= on occupying ; प्रयतः= niyataH= rule bound; परिग्रह= wife; द्वितीयः= as his companion; कुश शयने= on grass, bed - on pallet; संविष्टः= suptaH san=on sleeping [reposing]; तत्= his, वशिष्ठ's; शिष्य अध्यन= by disciples, practising [अप रात्र वेद पठनम्- Vedic hymns at night]; निवेदित= made known; अवसानाम् निशाअम्= lateness, of night; निनाय= गमयामास=started to spend the rest of nightly hours.On occupying a cottage determined by वशिष्ठ along with his pious wife as his only companion, king दिलीप reposed on a pallet, wither the lateness of that night is made known through the Vedic chants chanted by the disciples of वशिष्ठ in their practise at the end-session of that day; thus king दिलीप spent the rest of the hours of that night agog for next dawn. [1-95]This verse suggests as to how कालिदास is called a साक्षात्च्छिष्य 'an evident disciple of Valmiki. This verse has a bearing on the verse in Ramayana, where boys Rama and Lakshmana had to sleep on grass-beds, when travelling with Vishvamitra at Ramayana 1-22-24. तृण शयने अनुचिते तदा उषिताभ्याम्... There Valmiki says that though the boys are 'undeserving to recline on the grass...' they had to. There, Vishvamitra tells some bedtime stories to boys as lullaby, and here the young scholars are chanting Vedic hymns as lulling blessings. This verse has the contrasting depiction of princes and paupers, in अनुक्त अन्यापदेश somewhat 'an unsaid transfer of epithets.' Here a king is sleeping on a pallet, instead of his royal cushion bed, and he has but one companion, instead of scores of insiders in palace-chambers, and he is listening harsh notes of Vedic chants, instead of lilting background music in those palace-chambers. The only difference is that the queen is with him, instead of retiring to her own palace chambers, which she would do, if she were to be in palace. Humble living makes people to be united.--o)0(o--इति महाकवि कालिदास कृतौ रघुवंशे महाकाव्ये प्रथमः सर्गःThus this is 1st chapter in raghuvamsham of kAlidAsa the outstanding poem of India kAlidAsaरघुवंशम्Chapter [Sarga] 2 raghuvamsham--o)0(o--अथ प्रजानाम् अधिपः प्रभाते जाया पत्रिग्राहित गन्ध माल्याम् |वनाय पीत प्रतिबद्ध वस्ताम् यशो धनो धेनुम् ऋषेः मुमोच || 2-12-1 . अथ= then ; यशः धनः=कीर्ति संपन्न= having reputation, as his asset glorious one ; प्रजानाम् अधिपः= peoples, lord - king ; प्रभाते= at sunrise ; जाया= from wife ; पत्रि -ग्राहित= on receiving ; गन्ध माल्याम्= fragrance, garland [for worshipping the cow] ; पीत= on suckling [milk] ; प्रतिबद्ध= tied [to post] ; वस्ताम्= [having such a] calf ; ऋषेः धेनुम्= sage's, cow is ; मुमोच वनाय= released, for woods.On the next sunrise that glorious king दिलीप released sage vashiSTha's cow नन्दिनि to pasture in the woods, after her calf had suckling and tied to a post, and after the queen सुदक्षिण venerated that cow with fragrances and garlands. [2-1]तस्याः खुर न्यास पवित्र पांसुम् अपांसुलानाम् धुरि कीर्तनीया |मार्ग्म् मनुष्य ईश्वर धर्म पत्नी श्रुते इव अर्थाम् स्मृतिः अनुगच्छत् || 2-22-2 . अ पांसुलानाम्= पांसवो= दोषा, अ पांसवो=अदोषो=among immaculate ladies ; धुरि= अग्रे=atop ; कीर्तनीया= गणनीय=to be reckoned ; मनुष्य ईश्वर= peoples, lord - king's ; धर्म पत्नी= proper, wife [an appropriate one to bear proper progeny] - उंआ.; खुर न्यास पवित्र पांसुम्= by hooves, while treading, hallowed, with dust ; = तस्याः मार्ग्म्=of cow's, pathway u.mA, om ; अनुगच्छत्= treading behind - c ; श्रुते= of what is traditionally listened - scriptures, Vedic words ; अर्थाम्= meaning givers ; स्मृतिः= reminiscers - canonical treatise, धर्म शास्त्र-स् - scriptural pathway co; mo; इव= like - cw .That proper wife of the king, queen सुदक्षिण, an estimable one atop the immaculate ladies treaded on the pathway behind that cow as if that pathway is being hallowed with the dust raised by the hooves of cow, like धर्म शास्त्र-स्, canonical treatises, treading the pathway hallowed by वेद-वाक्य-स्, the Vedic precepts. [2-2]--o)0(o--Endnote of this page contains abbreviations used in here.--o)0(o--She followed the cow not just physically for the sake of rule laid down by sage, but whole-heartedly as a devout lady.I] स्म्ऱिति u.ma; सुदक्षिण u.me ; फ़ोल्लोविन्ग् sA.dha - sAdhAraNa dharmam which is anugAmi dharmam also ; iva= लिके =sA.vA - sAdhAraNa vAchakam .ईई] नन्दिनि'स् way बिम्ब; way of canonical sayings, श्रुत्यर्थम् प्रति बिम्बम्;ईईई] The adjective - तस्याः खुर न्यास पवित्र पांसुम् gives similarity of नन्दिनि with श्रुति-स्, veda-s; while adj. - अपांसुलानाम् धुरि कीर्तनीया gives similarity of सुदक्षिण with स्म्ऱिति-स्, traditional scriptures.Hence, there is mixture of अनुगामित्व, बिम्ब, प्रतिबिम्ब मिश्रण उपम Some object that 'the pathway of canons cannot be dusty' and say the extra-adjectival comparison is causing अधिक विशेषणत्वे धर्म गत न्यूनत्वम् पांसुना keeping ms's saying in view: प्रकृति विकार अभावात् पांसुल पद व्यावृत्त्या अपांसुले इति - विरोधालन्कारो ध्वन्यते; and hence it is not upama but something else. And some reject this statement saying 'when that dust itself is sanctified prior to her treading, it is as good as canons told by sages like पराशर, गौतम et al, all born out of the dust of earth and 'thus this can be attributed to both, and hence it is upama...' Come what may, कालिदास uses them all.निवर्त्य राजा दयिताम् दयालुः ताम् सौरभेयीम् सुरभिः यशोभिः |पयोधरीभूत चतुः समुद्राम् जुगोप गो रूप धराम् इव उर्वीम् || 2-32-3 . दयालुः= gracious one ; यशोभिः= by his renown; सुरभिः= a celebrated one ; राजा= king ; निवर्त्य दयिताम्= on sendin sg off, his wife ; ताम् सौरभेयीम्= her, सुरभि'स् daughter नन्दिनि ; पयोधरी भूत= whose udder is made as if [giving the impression of] ; चतुः समुद्राम्= having four, oceans [in her udder, four sacks are four oceans] ; गो रूप धराम्= cow's, form, assumed [as if earth assumed cow's form] ; जुगोप= [started to] protect ; उर्वीम्= earth o, u.mA ; इव= as if.On proceeding certain distance after the cow that gracious king celebrated for his renown has sent his wife back to hermitage, and he alone gone ahead to tend that daughter of cow कामधेनु, namely नन्दिनि, deeming her as earth presently morphed as cow with four oceans as her udder-sacs, according as his kingly wont in protecting earth. [2-3]Here, उर्वी - earth - u.mA; नन्दिनि cow - u.me; and सप्रयत्न रक्षण - protecting dutifully commanality; like coupula, sA. vA.On earth's side it is: पयोधरीभूतः चतुः समुद्राः यस्य सा 'the earth which made four oceans as her udder/breasts; while on cow's side: on नन्दिनि'स् side it is: अ-पतोधराः - पयोअधरा संपद्यमाना भूताः पयोधरी भूताः पयोधरी भूतः चतुः समुद्राः यस्य सा 'cow having ocean-like udders with four/five sacs; hence there is शब्द श्लेष - innuendo - a remark with a double meaning, usu. suggestive - maybe better term than the word allusion.सौरभेयीम् 'one assumed her form from her mother सुरभि om, bimba; गो रूप धराम्; 'earth assumed the form of cow - mo, prati bimba; thus these upama-s have अनुगामित्व श्लेष- बिम्ब प्रतिबिम्ब भाव मिश्रण - a mixture of commonality, illusion, object, mirrored objects.The cow assuming earth's form is also said in हरिवंशम्, विश्णु पुराण, कुमार सम्भवम् etc.व्रताय तेन अनुचरेण धेनोः न्यषेधि शेषो अपि अनुयीयि वर्गः |न च अन्यतः तस्य शरीर रक्षा स्व वीर्य गुप्ता हि मनोः प्रसूति || 2-42-4 . व्रताय अनुचरेण धेनोः= for vow, one following, after cow ; तेन= by him king; न्यषेधि शेषः अपि [ forbiden,remaining ones, even; अनुयीयि वर्गः= escort, staff ; न च अन्यतः= not, also, by others others need not protect him ; तस्य शरीर रक्षा= his, bodily, protection ; मनोः प्रसूति=manu's, descendants; स्व वीर्य गुप्ता हि= one's own, by valour, defendable.While following the cow नन्दिनि in the course of his vow दिलीप forbade his escort staff, since others are unneeded for his physical protection because the descendants of मनु-प्रजापति have to defend themselves by one's own valour on such occasions. [2-4]आस्वादवद्भिः कबलैः तृणानाम् कन्डूयनैः दंश निवारणैः च |अव्याहतैः स्वैर गतैः च तस्याः सम्राट् समाराधन तत्परो अभूत् || 2-52-5 . सम्राट्= emperor ; आस्वादवद्भिः तृणानाम् कबलैः= palatable, tender grass, with morsels [to graze that cow] ; कण्डूयनैः= by scrubbing ; दंश निवारणैः च= wild flies, by repelling ; अव्याहतैः स्वैर गतैः च= unrestricted, at will, with wanderings ; तस्याः सम् आराधन तत्परः अभूत्= of her, service, preoccupied, he became.That emperor is preoccupied in her service by pasturing her in pasturelands for palatable morsels, by scrubbing her itching skin, by repelling wild flies from heir, and by allowing unrestricted wanderings at her will. [2-5]स्थितः स्थिताम् उच्चलितः प्रयाताम् निषेदुषीम् आसन बन्ध धीराः |जल अभिलषी जलम् आददानाम् च्छाया इव ताम् भूपतिः अन्वगच्छत् || 2-62-6 . भूपतिः= king u.me ; स्थिताम्= if she halts; स्थितः= he halts ; प्रयाताम्= if she starts ; उच्चलितः= he starts ; निषेदुषीम्= if she squats ; आसन बन्ध धीराः= in squatting, tying up [occupied, seated] steadfastly [he squats steadily] ; जलम् आददानाम्= water, if she takes ; जल अभिलषी [सन्= पिबन् इत्यर्थः]=water, even if he is desiring even if he is thirsty he is drinking when she quenched her thirst first] ; च्छाया= shadow u.mA ; इव= like a sA.vA ; ताम्= with her ; अन्वगच्छत्= followed c, sA.dha .That kings halts when she halts untiringly, starts when she starts unwearyingly, squats when she is squatting unfalteringly, and though he is thirsty he drinks water only when she quenched her thirst first, unobtrusively, thus that king followed her like her own shadow. [2-6]The object shadow is in fem while the oc king is in masc., but they should be in one gender in upama. At times this rule is overlooked if it is not सहृदय हृदयोद्वेगकरम् - a heart-shattering saying for kindhearted readers.स न्यस्त चिह्नाम् अपि राज्य लक्ष्मीम् तेजो विशेष अनुमिताम् दधानः |असीत् अनाविष्कृत दान राजिः अन्तर्मद अवस्थ इव द्विप इन्द्रः || 2-72-7 . न्यस्त चिह्नाम् अपि= renounced, regalia, even though ; तेजः विशेष= aura, by speciality ; अनुमिताम्= inferable ; राज्य लक्ष्मीम् दधानः= kingdom [kingly,] splendour, who bears ; सः= he, dilIpa oc, u.me, om ; अन् आविष्कृत= not, expressed ; दान राजिः= ruttish oozing, with streams, rills [expressing elephantoid intrepidity ; अन्तर् मद अवस्थ= inner, in a ruttish [rather, intrepidity,] with such a state [such an aura] ; द्विप इन्द्रः=गज राज= elephants, lord of c, u.mA, mo; इव= like cw, sA.vA ; असीत्=he became [appeared to be.]Though regalia are renounced he bears a kingly splendour inferable by the speciality of aura around him, and though his elephantoid intrepidity is unexpressed by any rills of ruttish ooz on temples as with common elephants, but he with his inner aura of elephantine intrepidity appeared to be like a lordly elephant. [2-7]Though external regalia are discarded an innate aura of kingship always prevails - o. In such exemplary personalities, though their internal courage is unexpressed outwardly or unnecessarily, that aura of that courage will be self-evident - mo. Both the kingly splendour and the inner state of intrepidity are inferable, and hence it has innuendo. This is an admixture of innuendo-simile: श्लेष - बिम्ब प्रतिबिम्ब भाव उपम. The ref. to elephants is प्राक् सूचि 'foreteller' telling that an elephant alone can oppose a lion. Let us see later what this elephant like intrepid दिलीप does when a lion comes. Here, the elephant is said to a best breed called भद्र, used for king's ride. Please c.f. valmikiramayan.net Bala Kanda 1-6-25 onwards, wherein details are given about such elephants.लता प्रतान उद् ग्रथितैः स केशैः अधिज्य धन्वा विचचार दावम् |रक्षा अपदेशात् मुनि होम धेनोः वन्यान् विनेष्यन् इव दुष्ट सत्त्वान् || 2-82-8 . लता= with fibril ; प्र तान= well, heaped [clumped, well-groomed] ; उत्= नमय्य=up-drawn ; ग्रथितैः= बद्धा=tied ; केशैः= head-hair ; सः= he that दिलीप; मुनि होम धेनोः रक्षा= sage's, oblational items giving, cow, to protect ; अपदेशात्= on the plea of ; वन्यान् दुष्ट सत्त्वान् विनेष्यन् इव= of wilds, savage, to check up, as though ; अधि ज्य= mounted, bowstring [on bow] ; धन्वा= with bow ; विचचार दावम्= moved about, in forest.With a well groomed and up-drawn head-hair tautened with a fine withe at back like that of a ready hunter, and with bowstring equally taut on his bow, दिलीप moved about the forest on the plea of protecting the sage's cow that yields offertories to sage वशिष्ट'स् rituals, duly checking up savage beasts of the wilds. [2-8]विसृष्ट पार्श्व अनुचरस्य तस्य पार्श्व द्रुमाः पाशभृता समस्य |उदीरयामासुः इव उन्मदनाम् आलोक शब्दम् वयसाम् विरावैः || 2-92-9 . विसृष्ट पार्श्व अनुचरस्य= one who brushed off, at sides, followers' [ वन्दि गण etc - flatterers, panegyrists] ; पाश भृता= noose, wielder [Rain-god] ; समस्य= तुल्यस्य=coequal of ; तस्य पार्श्व= at his, sides ; द्रुमाः=available trees ; उत् मदनाम् वयसाम्= highly, excited, birds; वि रावैः= with many, trills ; आलोक= 'see' - 'behold, here comes the king! God save the king!' suchlike callings of ushers at court ; शब्दम्= that sound, ovation ; उत् ईरयामासुः इव= uproariously, voiced [uproariously trilled,] as it were [it is in the tone of ushers.]Though he long back interdicted panegyrists from his side, the trees on either side of pathway are appearing like the lines of the very same extollers because they are panegyrising the arrival of that king दिलीप, the peer of raingod वरुण, through the highly excited birds perching on their branches chorally trilling prolongedly in the tone of ushers at court like, 'Behold! Here comes the king! God save the king! [2-9]It is unnecessary whether dilIpa is a king or not for the trees. But the incomer looked like their favourite raingod. Hence, the trees swayed their heads, to which swing birds chorally sang, which ultimately resulted as some exaltations to a king, either dilIpa or varuNa.मरुत् प्रयुक्ताः च मरुत् सकख आभम् तम् अर्चम् आरात् अभिवर्तमानम् |अवाकिरन् बाल लताः प्रसूनैः अचार जालैः इव पौर कन्याः || 2-102-10 . मरुत् प्रयुक्ताः च= by windgod, activated, also ; बाल लताः= new, creeper plants ; मरुत् सकख आभम्= [who is in] windgod's, friend's - firegod's, radiance ; आरात् अभिवर्तमाअनम्= at nearly, on approaching ; अर्चम्= adorable one ; तम्= him [ दिलीप] ; प्रसूनैः= with [creeper's] offspring [namely, flowers] ; पौर कन्याः= city, maidens ; अचार जालैः इव= customary, rice-flakes, like ; अवाकिरन्= strewn, sprinkled; [ सखा हि सखाम् उपागतम् उपचरति इति भावः - a friend is honouring his own freind that has come this far. ]Now the windgod has started to honour his friend firegod through dilIpa, because dilIpa is a lookalike of that firegod in his resplendence, by huffing creeper-plants on either side of road to make their flowers trickle on the road as he approached, which just looked like the city maidens standing on either side of the road sprinkle rice-flakes on the pathway of dignitaries as a welcome gesture. [2-10]city girls - u.mA; creeper-plants - u.me ; sprinkling - sA. dh . ; like - sA. vA ; blooming flowers - o ; rice-flakes - mo ; Fire, the friend of Wind - u.mA ; king - u.me ; radiance - sA. dh ; and in this compound 'shines like fire' - 'shines' is unsaid. Even if these are वाचक लुप्त उपमा-s, which can also be called त्रि-लुप्त-उपमा-s, even then there are three उपम-स् in this.धनुर् भृतो अपि अस्य दयाद्रभावम् आख्यातम् अन्तःकरणैः विशंकैः |विलोकन्त्यो वपुः आपुः अक्ष्णाम् प्रकाम विस्तार फलम् हरिण्यः || 2-112-11 . धनुः भृतः अपि= bow, wielder, even if ; अस्य= his ; दय आद्र भावम्= mercy, wetted, thought - his kind-heartedness ; वि शंकैः= without, doubt ; अन्तःकरणैः= by [deer's hearts] ; आख्यातम्= made known [to deer] ; वपुः= body [build, body language of दिलीप] ; विलोकन्त्यः= on gazing ; हरिण्यः= she-deer ; अक्ष्णाम्= of eyes ; प्रकाम= desirably ; विस्तार फलम् आपुः= broad, fruit [for having broad eyes], they obtained.Although दिलीप'स् is wielding a fierce bow now, his kind-heartedness is made known to the doubtless hearts of she-deer through his body-language picturing him as non-sniper, and when they with their wide-eyed admiration had gone on gazing his good build minus any attempt of salvos, their possessing broad-eyes is brought to ample fruition, because providence is on their side. [2-11]Deer can easily distinguish a hunter from a wayfarer.स कीचकैः मारुत पूर्ण रन्ध्रैः कूजद्भिः आपादित वंश कृत्यम् |शुश्राव कुंजेषु यशः स्वम् उच्चैः उद् गीयमानम् वन देवताभिः || 2-122-12 . सः= he ; मारुत पूर्ण रन्ध्रैः= by air, filled, holes ; कूजद्भिः= while singing ; कीचकैः= by bamboos ; उच्चैः= in high tone ; आपादित= संपादितम्=sufficed ; वंश कृत्यम्= bamboo, work - fluting a bamboo flute ; कुंजेषु वन देवताभिः= in arbours, by georgic, deities ; उद् गीयमानम्= highly, singing [to full score] ; स्वम् यशः शुश्राव= his own, glory, he heard.While दिलीप is on his way he heard the hum and thrum of nature that seemed to be the full score singing of georgic deities to the accompaniment of high-pitched fluty bamboos while the air is filling their holes like a flutist, and he is all ears for that symphony as if it is having the sonata form of his glory. [2-12]वृक्तः तुषारैः गिरि निर्झराणम् अनोकह अकंपित पुष्प गन्धी |तम् आतप क्लान्तम् अनातपत्रम् आचार पूतम् पवनः निषेवे || 2-132-13 . गिरि निर्झराणम्= गिरिषु, शैल नदी प्रवाहाणाम्=mountain, torrents -cascades ; तुषारैः= sprays ; वृक्तः= संपृक्त=meld with ; अनोकह= trees ; अकंपित= a little swayed ; पुष्प गन्धी पवनः= flowers, with fragrance, breeze ; अन् आत पत्रम्= without, heat, shade=without umbrella, parasol-less ; आतप= by sun heat ; क्लान्तम्= tired ; आचार= by mores [n.pl: customs or conventions regarded as essential to or characteristic of a community] ; पूतम्= consecrated ; तम् निषेवे= him [ दिलीप,] served; [ आचार पूतत्वात् स राज जगत् पावनत्वा अपि पवनस्य सेव्य आसीत् इति भावः.]The breezes swaying the trees a little bit are fraught with fragrances of their swaying flowers, besides being coolish when meld with the sprays from cascades, such as they are those breezes are now serving दिलीप a little bit, who is a little bit tired by the heat as he is unumbrellaed now, yet he is active as he is consecrated by mores. [2-13]शश्मौ वृष्टा अपि विना दवाग्निः आसीत् विशेषा फल पुष्प वृद्धिः |ऊनम् न सत्त्वेषु अधिको बबाधे तस्मिन् वनम् गोप्तरि गाहमाने || 2-142-14 . गोप्तरि= being the protector ; तस्मिन्= that king ; वनम् गाहमाने - प्रविशति सति= woods, while entering ; वृष्टा अपि विना= rainfall, even, without ; दवाग्निः शशाम= wild-fire, silenced ; फल पुष्प वृद्धिः= fruits, flowers, growth ; विशेषा आसीत्= in abundance, it is ; सत्त्वेषु= among animals ; अधिकः= mightier one ; न बबाधे ऊनम्= not, mauling, lesser [in might] animals.On his being the protector of forests among other things, his entry into forests appeared propitious because forest-fires in woods silenced on their own without rainfalls, growth of flowers and fruits is in abundance on trees, and among animals the mightier ones are not mauling the lesser mighty. [2-14]In stanzas 9 to 14 welcome accorded by he woods to the king is described poetically and makes them show all the marks of respect that are shown to royalty in town.संचार पूतानि दिगंतराणि कृत्वा दिनान्ते निलयाय गंतुम् |प्रचक्रमे पल्लव राग ताम्रा प्रभा पतंगस्य मुनेः च धेनुः || 2-152-15 . पल्लव राग ताम्रा= tender leaves, in hue, tawny ; पतंगस्य प्रभा= sun's, shine ; मुनेः धेनुः च= sage's, cow's, also [also of tawny complexion - च, तु though fillers, will give much meaning at times] ; दिक् अंतराणि= quarters, inside of ; संचार पूतानि कृत्वा= by meandering, hallowed, on making ; दिन अन्ते= at day, ending [in evening] ; प्रचक्रमे गंतुम् निलयाय= started, to go, to home.Those two that are with a tawny hue like leaflets, viz. the evening sun with a tawny sunshine and the cow of the sage with a tawny complexion, commenced their homeward course each to its resting place after hallowing all the places they ranged in all the quarters of heaven and earth, daylong. [2-15]पल्लव राग, tawniness of tender leaves - u.mA ; tawny complexion of cow u.me ; copperiness= पल्ल्व राग इव तम्रा - sA.dha ; like - cw - unsaid; समास-वाच्क-लुप्त-उपम.tawniness of leaves - u.mA ; sunshine u.me; like - cw - unsaid. समासग-वाच्क-लुप्त-उपम.पतन्गप्रभ, sunshine u.mA ; cow's complexion - u.me ; meandering daylong and returning home by evening commonality, sA.dha plus anugAmi dharma ; cw, sAvA unsaid: वाचक लुप्त उपम.alankAra - वाक्य गत क्रिया दीपक - अलन्कार सर्वस्वम्.It is enough if the common connective word or idea is suggestive, though not said expressively, for upama.ताम् देवता पित्रृ अतिथि क्रिय अर्थाम् अन्वक् ययौ मध्य लोक पालः |बभौ च सा तेन सताम् मतेन श्रद्धा इव साक्षात् विधिना उपपन्नाः || 2-162-16 . मध्य लोक पालः= intermediary, realms, ruler of - दिलीप; देवता पित्रृ अतिथि= gods, manes, guests ; क्रिय= याग श्रद्ध दानानि=rituals, offerings in rites ; अर्थाम्= one whose objective is to fulfil them - cow ; ताम् अन्वक् ययौ= her, in tow, followed ; सताम् मतेन तेन= सद्भिः सम्मन्यमानेन - one honoured by high-minded people - दिलीप; उपपन्नाः सा च= together with, she, also; [elliptic . सताम् मतेन तेन= by high-minded people, acceptable one, by her] ; विधिना= observances; [upapannA=having those religious routine, observances] ; साक्षात्= ostensibly [incarnate-like] ; श्रद्धा इव बभौ= religious earnestness, like, shone forth.That ruler of intermediary realms दिलीप followed the cow homewards and together with him who is an honourable one for high-minded people, she shone forth like the ostensible incarnate of religious earnestness personified श्रद्धा, आस्तिक्य बुद्धि where श्रद्धा is the inkling to believe the existence of other worlds - for her earnest observance of religious routine as a provider of offertories to for - यज्ञ, श्राद्ध, दाना-स् - vedic-rituals, beatification rites for manes, and hospitality / donations. [2-16]An incarnate of स्रद्ध religious earnestness - u.mA; nandini cow - u.me; shining forth c, and anugAmi dharma also ; इव cw. दिलीपेन उपपन्ना bimba; विधिना उपपन्ना prati bimba; सताम् मतेन ubhaya anvayi so the alankAra is anugAmitva, bimba. pratibimba bhAva shleSa mishraNa alankAra .स वल्वल उत्तीर्ण वराह यूथानि आवास वृक्ष उन्मुख बर्हिणानि |ययौ मृग अध्यासित शाद्वलानि श्यामायमानानि वनानि पश्यन् || 2-172-17 . सः= he ; वल्वल= small water ponds ; उत्तीर्ण= came up from them ; वराह यूथान्= wild boars, litter of ; आवास= dwelling place ; वृक्ष= trees ; उन्मुख= face turned to ; बर्हिणानि= peacocks ; मृग अध्यासित शाद्वलानि= by deer, settled, swards ; श्यामायमानानि= becoming darkish ; वनानि= glades ; पश्यन् ययौ= on seeing, proceeded.While the glades are darkening litters of wild boars are coming up from ponds, peacocks are turning towards the trees of their habitation, herds of deer are settling on swards - seeing such back-to-home scenes दिलीप too advanced homewards. [2-17]आपीन भार उद् वहन प्रयत्नात् गृष्टिः गुरुत्वात् वपुषो नरेन्द्रः |उभौ अलम् चक्रतुः अचिंताभ्याम् तपो वन आवृत्ति पथम् गताभ्याम् || 2-182-18 . गृष्टिः= a cow which has calved only for once ; आपीन भार= udder's, weight ; उद् वहन= up, carrying [liugging while striding] ; प्रयत्नात्= one who is trying ; नरेन्द्रः वपुषः गुरुत्वात् च= by king's, hysique's, weight, also ; उभौ बोथ्; अचिंताभ्याम् - चारुभ्याम्= with grace ; गताभ्याम्= gait of strides ; तपः वन= to hermitage's, woods ; आवृत्ति पथम्= return, path ; अलम् चक्रतुः= beauty, they made.Though she calved only for once her udder is weighty which she had to lug around when striding, and the king too strode after her in accordance with his weighty physique, thus they both beautified the return path from the woods to hermitage with their graceful strides. [2-18]वषिष्ट धेनोः अनुयीनम् तम् वर्तमानम् वनिता वनांतात् |वपौ निमेष अलस पक्ष्म पन्क्तिः उपोषिताभ्याम् इव लोचनाभ्याम् || 2-192-19 . वषिष्ट धेनोः अनुयीनम्= vashiShTa 's, with cow, follower of ; वन अंतात्= from woods, interiors of coming from interiors of woords on dilIpa's side - or, standing at the fringe of woods one the side of सुदक्षिण; वर्तमानम्= who is returning ; तम् वनिता= his, lady [ सुदक्षिण] ; निमेष= in closing ; अलस= tardy ; पक्ष्म पन्क्तिः= eyelids, rows of ; उपोषिताभ्याम् इव= fasted, as though her eyes are starving from morning to see him ; लोचनाभ्याम्= [by her] both eyes ; वपौ= she guzzled; [ सा तृष्ण्या दिल्लिपम् अधिकम् व्यलोकत् इति अर्थः=she gazed upon him with thirsty emotion.]Standing in the threshold of hermitage at the fringe of woodlands, she whose eyelids are closing tardily because her eyes are starving to see her husband from morning, such a सुदक्षिण has seen her husband coming home from the interiors of woods following vashiShTa's cow, with a wide-eyed welcome as if guzzling his form just with her famished eyes. [2-19]पुरस्कृता वर्त्मनि पार्थिवेन पत्युद्गता पार्थिव धर्म पत्न्याः |तत् अन्तरे सा विरराज धेनुः दिन क्षपा मध्य गता इव संध्या || 2-202-20 . वर्त्मनि= on pathway ; पार्थिवेन= by king ; पुरस्कृता= placed afore [king is coming on rearside] ; पार्थिव धर्म पत्न्याः= king's, queen consort ; पत्युद्गता [प्रति उत् गता]=who came forward to welcome ; सा धेनुः= she, that cow ; तत् अन्तरे= their, in between ; दिन क्षपा मध्य गता= day, night, in the middle, entered ; संध्या इव= ocherish sunset, as with; विरराज= shone forth. [ तत् अन्तर - इति ग्रहणम् अत्र उपमेय उपमानयोःज़् क्क्रम अवस्थानम् अत्र सादृश्यौ अवक्सार्थम् इति मन्तव्यम् - though unsaid, night comes after day, between them sunset betides, thus the order of - u.mA and u.me-s are to be understood in the sequence of day-dusk-night.]While coming home that cow नन्दिनि shone forth like the ocherish sunset entering betwixt day and night with the king following at her rearward, his queen consort welcomingly advancing towards her frontwards, herself walking amid these two. [2-20]प्रदक्षिणी कृत्य पयस्विनीम् ताम् <स्पन् च्लस्स्="स्पन्१">sudakshiNA</स्पन्> स अक्षत पात्र हस्ता |प्रणंय च अनर्च विशालम् अस्याः शृन्ग अन्तरम् द्वारम् इव अर्थ सिद्धेः || 2-212-21 . स अक्षत पात्र हस्ता= with, sacred-rice, vessel, in hand ; सुदक्षिण; पयस्विनीम् ताम् प्रदक्षिणी कृत्य= milch cow with plenty of milk, around her, circum -ambulations, on making ; प्रणंय च= on revering, also ; अस्याः विशालम् शृन्ग अन्तरम्= in her [cow's,] broad, horns, in the gap of ; अर्थ सिद्धेः= for ambition, accomplishment of ; द्वारम् इव= doorway, as if ; अनर्च= worshipped.Lady सुदक्षिण made circumambulations on her right around that milch cow with cornucopian milk handling a vessel containing sacred-rice, and worshipped that cow at the broad place in the gap of her horns, as if it is the gateway to accomplish their ambition. [2-21]वत्स उत्सुक अपि स्तिमिता सपर्याम् प्रत्यग्रहीत् इति ननदुतुः तौ |भक्त्या उपपन्नेषु हि तद् विधानानाम् प्रसाद चिह्नानि पुरः फलानि || 2-222-22 . सा= she that cow ; वत्स उत्सुक अपि= on calf, keen on, though ; स्तिमिता= calmly ; सपर्याम् प्रत्यग्रहीत्= worship, accepted ; इति तौ ननदुतुः= thus [on concluding,] both [king and queen,] gladdened ; भक्त्या उपपन्नेषु= with devoutness, those who have it ; तत् विधानानाम्= that, [gentle manner of cow,] her sort of [gracious beings] ; प्रसाद चिह्नानि= gracious gifts, signs of; पुरः फलानि हि= ahead, come to fruition, indeed.Though that cow is keen to meet her calf she calmly accepted the worship of royal couple, concluding which that couple too gladdened, because the glance of forbearance of saintly beings indeed bears as sign of fructification of the desires of those devout adorers. [2-22]गुरोः स दारस्य निपीड्य पादौ समप्य सान्ध्यम् च विधिम् दिलीपः |दोह अवसाने पुनः एव दोग्ध्रीम् भेजे भुज उच्छिन्न रिपुः निषण्नाम् || 2-232-23 . भुज= by shoulder [strength] ; उच्छिन्न=उत् च्छिन्न=उत्कर्षेण भिन्नः= shattered - trounced ; रिपुः= one who has such eliminated enemies ; दिलीपः= dilIpa; स दारस्य गुरोः= with, wife, his mentor [available there] ; पादौ निपीड्य= [mentor's] feet, in grasping tightly [revering devoutly] ; सान्ध्यम् विधिम् च समप्य= sunset time, ordainments, also, on completing ; दोह अवसाने निषण्नाम्= milking, at end of, sitting ; दोग्ध्रीम् एव= milch cow, alone ; पुनः भेजे= again, devoted himself to.Later king दिलीप that has altogether shattered all his enemies personally, revered at the feet of his mentor and his wife as that saintly lady is available at the side of his mentor, and still later on completing sunset time ordainments he again devoted himself to the milch cow that is presently sitting after milking is over. [2-23]ताम् अन्तिकस्य न्यस्त बलि प्रदीपाम् अन्वास्य गोप्ता गृहिणी सहायः |क्रमेण सुप्ताम् अनु संविवेश सुप्त उत्थिताम् प्रातः अनु उदतिष्टत् || 2-242-24 . गोप्ता= protector ; गृहिणी सहायः= his wife, in company with ; अन्तिकस्य= nearby ; न्यस्त= placed ; बलि= enough fodder, or worship material left over; प्रदीपाम्= lit oil lamp ; अन्वास्य=अनु उपविश्य= [sat down] in keeping with; ताम्= her [cow] ; क्रमेण सुप्ताम्= gradually, after her sleeping ; अनु= in step with ; संविवेश= he slept ; प्रातः सुप्त उत्थिताम्= in morning, from sleep, on her getting up ; अनु= following her ; उदतिष्टत्= he got up.That protector of all, दिलीप, now aided just by his wife sat down at the side of the cow where enough fodder is placed along with a lit oil lamp, and gradually slipped into sleep when that cow slept, and woke up on next morning when she is awake, in step with her. [2-24]इत्थम् व्रतम् धारयतः प्रजार्थम् समम् महीष्या महनीय कीर्तेः |सप्त व्यतीयुः त्रिगुणानि तस्य दिनानि दीन उद्धरण उचितस्य || 2-252-25 . इत्थम्= this way ; प्रज अर्थम्= progeny, for the sake of ; महीष्या समम्= queen, along with ; व्रतम् धारयतः= bow, abiding in ; महनीय=पूजनीय कीर्तेः= [a king ] with reverential renown ; दीन उद्धरण उचितस्य= disconsolate people, in enlivening, befitting - king ; तस्य= his ; त्रि गुणानि सप्त= three, times, seven [twenty-one] ; दिनानि व्यतीयुः= days, spent.This way that enlivener of disconsolate, the king with reverential renown, while observing his vow along with his queen in the hope of getting progeny spent thrice seven days of him. [2-25]आनेद्युः आत्म अनुचरस्य भावम् जिज्ञासमाना मुनि होम् धेनुः |गंगा प्रपातांत निरूढ घासम् गौरि गुरोः गह्वरम् आविवेश || 2-262-26 . आनेद्युः= next day ; मुनि होम धेनुः= sage's, Vedic-ritual, cow ; आत्म= of her ; अनुचरस्य= follower's ; भावम् जिज्ञसमाना= instinct, wishing to know ; गंगा प्रपात= River Ganga's, [place of] descent ; अन्त= nearby, whereat ; निरूढ घासम्= cropped up [grown up, having grass grassy land at cave ; गौरि गुरोः गह्वरम्= Goddess Parvati's, father's [Himalayan,] cavern ; आविवेश= entered into.Next day wishing to test the devotion of her follower that cow of sage's Vedic-ritual entered a grassy Himalayan cavern whereat river गन्ग once had her descent from heaven. [2-26]सा दुष्प्रधर्षा मनसा अपि हिंस्रैः इति अद्रि शोभा प्रहित ईक्षणेन |अलक्षित अभ्युत्-पतनो नृपेण प्रसह्य सिंहः किल ताम् चकर्ष || 2-272-27 . सा= she [cow] ; हिंस्रैः= beasts of prey ; मनसा अपि दुष्प्रधर्षा= mentally, even, cannot frighten her ; इति=थुस् [थे किन्ग् इस् चोन्फ़िदेन्त्]; अद्रि शोभा= mountain's, grandeur ; प्रहित ईक्षणेन= fixated, looks ; नृपेण= by [such] king ; अ लक्षित= unseen - failed to notice ; अभ्युत्-पतनः= springing up, falling on ; सिंहः= a lion ; ताम्= her [cow] ; प्रसह्य चकर्ष= violently, hauled ; किल= अळीके=as if, seemingly, feigned to drag cow.When the king's looks are fixated on the grandeur of Himalayan Mountains for a fraction of a second owing to his self-confidence about the unassailability of the cow by any beast of the wild, even presumptively, only then a lion sprang up and fallen on the cow feigning to haul it forcibly, which the king failed to notice. [2-27]तदीयम् आक्रन्दितम् आर्त साधोः गुहा निबद्ध प्रतिशब्द दीर्घम् |रश्मिषु इव आदाय नगेन्द्र सक्ताम् निवर्तयामासु नृपस्य दृष्टिम् || 2-282-28 . गुहा= in cave ; निबद्ध= confined ; प्रति शब्द= re, sound echoing ; दीर्घम्= long-drawn ; तदीयम्= hers ; आक्रन्दितम्= wail ; आर्त साधोः= at bewailers, merciful one ; नृपस्य= king's, [looks] ; नग इन्द्र सक्ताम्= on mountains' lord, anchored ; दृष्टिम्= his sight is ; रश्मिषु आदाय इव= by reins, drawn, as if ; निवर्तयामासु= started to divert.While the long-drawn wail of the cow is confined within the cave and re-echoing in it, the king heard it and suddenly diverted his sight anchored on the lordly mountain towards the cave, as if tightly reined in, for he is a merciful king in respect of bewailers. [2-28]स पाटलायाम् गवि तस्थवांसम् धनुर्धर केसरिणम् ददर्श |अधित्यकायाम् इव धातुमयाम् लोध्रद्रुमम् सानुमतः प्रफुल्लम् || 2-292-29 . धनुः धर सः= bow, wielder, he that दिलीप; पाटलायाम् गवि= on tawny, cow ; तस्थवांसम्= sthitavAn=staying, sitting ; केसरिणम्= at lion ; सानु मतः= mountaintops, one having - lofty mountain ; धातुमयाम्= filled with ores ; अधित्य कायाम्= raised, bodies =ऊर्थ्व भूमौ= mesas, mountainsides ; प्रफुल्लम्= fully bloomed ; लोध्र द्रुमम् इव= Lodhra tree [Tymplocos racemosa] like ; ददर्श= saw.Then that archer dilIpa has seen a lion seated on the back of chestnut-coloured cow, like a full-bloomed लोध्र tree snobbishly sitting on a terrace of a lofty mountain full with coppery ores. [2-29]Coppery लोध्र tree in full bloom - u.mA ; lion - u.me ; tawniness of cow - om ; colour of ores - mo ; broad backed cow - om ; lofty mountainsides - mo ; adhitya - sitting ubhayAnvyi - applies both to lion and tree; and though the tree and ores, lion and cow do not directly correspond each to each, their adjectival light-sienna hue will compare, with a little innuendo; बिम्ब-प्रतिबिम्ब भाव श्रौति-पूर्ण उपम.ततो मृगेन्द्रस्य मृगेन्द्र गामी वधाय वधस्य शरम् शरण्यः |जात अभिषंगो नृपतिः निषंगात् उद्धर्तुम् ऐच्छत् प्रसभो उद्धृत अरिः || 2-302-30 . ततः= then ; मृग इन्द्र गामी= animals', lord like, gait - having lion's gait ; शरण्यः= a haven ; प्रसभः= perforce ; उद्धृत अरिः= one who rooted out, enemies ; नृपतिः= such king ; जात अभिषंगः= birthed, embarrassment - embarrassedly ; वधस्य मृगेन्द्रस्य= killable, lordly lion; वधाय= for killing ; निषंगात्= from quiver ; शरम् उद्धर्तुम् ऐच्छत्= arrow, to upheave, intended to.Then he with lionly gait, an extirpator of enemies, a haven for the forlorn, that dilIpa though felt chagrined at first immediately intended to upheave an arrow from quiver to slay the slayable lord of beasts. [2-30]2-31 . प्रहर्तुः तस्य= one wishing to strike [shoot arrow,] his, that दिलीप's ; वाम इतरः करः= left, other than, hand [right hand] ; नख प्रभा रूषित= nails', [rosy] brightness, spreading ; कंक पत्रे= on heron's [white,] feathers ; सायक पुंख एव= on arrows', feathered grips, only ; सक्त अंगुलिः= stuck, fingers ; चित्र अर्पित आरम्भः=in a picture [painting,] depicted, attempt action; इव= like ; अवतस्थे= remained static.The right hand of हिम् who wished to shoot arrow remained static with fingers stuck in the feathered end of arrow spreading a rosy brightness of his fingernails on the white feathers of heron, like that of the stilled action of a hand drawing an arrow from quiver depicted in a painting. [2-31]The dynamic right hand and fingers of king u.me, o; the same in a static form on a canvas u.mA, oc, mo; sA.vA, cw - like; brightness of nails spreading on feathers - o; the same spread of colours in painting - mo; sA.dha inertness, colours etc in u.me, u.mA , bimba, pratbimba .बाहु प्रतिष्टंभ विवृद्ध मन्युः अभ्यर्णम् अगस्कृतम् अस्पृशद्भिः |राजा स्व तेजोभिः अदहत्य अंतः भोगि इव मंत्र औषध रुद्ध वीर्यः || 2-322-32 . बाहु प्रतिष्टंभ विवृद्ध मन्युः= arm, since constrained, verily heightened, fury ; राजा= king ; मंत्र औषध रुद्ध वीर्यः= by spells, herbs, constrained, force ; भोगि इव= serpent, like ; अभ्यर्णम् अगस्कृतम्= in presence, wrongdoer ; अ स्पृशद्- भिः= unable to touch [with arrow/fangs] ; स्व तेजोभिः अंतः अदहत्य= by his own, internal blaze, internally, blazed him down.Heightened is the fury to the king as his arm is constrained, like a serpent constrained by spells and herbs, and his internal blaze blazed him down, for he is unable to touch the wrongdoer though available in his own presence. [2-32]The name भोगि applies to both the king and serpent भोगी राज भुजन्गयोः; their objected/hindered path and ire c, - sA.dha; the king o, u.me; serpent oc, u.mA; burning within themselves - mo; like - cw; in presence, wrongdoer, unable to touch, one's own internal fury - all the four are commonalities to both king and serpent, hence a mixture zeugmatic metaphor, with mirrored/reflected objects.तम् आर्य गृह्यम् निगृहीत धेनुः मनुष्य वाचा मनु वंश केतुम् |विस्मययन् विस्मितम् आत्म वृत्तौ सिंह उरु सत्त्वम् निजगाद सिंहः || 2-332-33 . निगृहीत धेनुः सिंहः= one who has beleaguered, cow, such lion ; आर्य गृह्यम्= noble people, takable - one takes side of nobles ; मनु वंश केतुम्= in manu's, lineage's, an ensign of [addressed so, because raghu has not yet emerged in this dynasty] ; सिंह उरु सत्त्वम्= like lion, highly, forceful one ; आत्म वृत्तौ विस्मितम्= his own, for condition, astonishing ; तम्= to him - to king ; मनुष्य वाचा= in human, voice ; विस्मययन् निजगाद= to [further] astonish, emphatically said.The lion that has beleaguered the cow emphatically said in human voice to the king who takes sides with noble ones, an ensign of मनु'स् lineage, a highly forceful one like a lion, to astonish him who is already astonished for his own condition. [2-33]अलम् महीपाल तव श्रमेण प्रयुक्तम् अस्त्रम् इतो वृद्था स्यात् |न पादप उन्मूलन शक्ति रंहः शिलोच्चये मूर्च्छति मारुतस्य || 2-342-34 . अलम् तव श्रएण= enough, with your, striving; महीपाल= oh, king ; इतः प्रयुक्तम् अस्त्रम्= this way [on me,] launched, missile ; वृद्था स्यात्= futile, it will be ; पादप उन्मूलन शक्ति= trees, uprooting, force ; मारुतस्य रंहः= of wind, gust ; न शिलोच्चये मूर्च्छति= not, on mountains, spreads [to cave in.]"Enough is your striving, oh, king, futile will be the missile you launch on me... a forceful gust may perhaps uproot trees, but it cannot cave in a mountain... [2-34]A gust cannot uproot a mountain - a common factor; दिलीप's arrow cannot do anything to lion - uncommon; अर्ह्तान्तर न्यास अलन्कार comparing a common factor with uncommon factorकैलास गौरम् वृषम् आरुरक्षोः पाद अर्पण अनुग्रह पूत पृष्टम् |अवेहि माम् किंकरम् अष्टमूर्तेः कुंभोदरम् नाम निकुंभ तुल्यम् || 2-352-35 . कैलास= like Mt . कैलश्; गौरम्= whitish ; वृषम्= bull, Nandi ; आरुरक्षोः= when mounting ; अष्ट मूर्तेः= eight, faceted one - god shiva ; पाद अर्पण= at feet, dedicated ; अनुग्रह= by his grace ; पूत= sanctified ; पृष्टम्= back of body ; निकुंभ तुल्यम्= निकुम्भ, a coequal ; कुंभोदरम् नाम= kumbhodara, named ; किंकरम्= as servant ; अवेहि माम्= क्नोव्, me."Once, god शिव sanctified my body by placing his foot on my back while mounting his bull-vehicle, a whitely and lofty one like Mt. kailAsa, namely नन्दि... hence know me as कुम्भोदर, the servant of god शिव, and as a coequal of निकुम्भ, another servant of शिव... [2-35]The Himalayan Mountain is within the vicinity of the lion and king. So the lion is taking it as a comparable object to Shiva's bull. Reg. Nikumbha, the Padma Purana says that he is one of the attendants of Shiva who made king of Kashi to build a temple of Shiva in Kashi. Maha Bharata says in its Shalya Parva that he is a soldier of KArtikeya. God Shiva's eight faces are - पन्च भूताः, सूर्य, चन्द्र, यजमान - five subtle elements, sun, moon, and the principal.अमुम् पुरः पश्यसि देवदारुम् पुत्रीकृतो असौ वृषभ ध्वजेन |यो हेम कुंभ स्तन निस्सृतानाम् स्कंदस्य मातुः पयसाम् रसज्ञः || 2-362-36 . पुरः= in [your] front ; अमुम् देवदारुम्= this, Deodar tree ; पश्यसि= you are beholding, isn't it ; यः= which is [grown] ; स्कंदस्य = skanda's - kArtikeya's ; मातुः mother=goddess pArvati's ; हेम कुंभ स्तन= golden, pot-like, from bosoms ; निस्सृतानाम्= out flown; पयसाम्= by waters [milk] ; रसज्ञः= knower of taste ; असौ= it is that tree is that tree knows the taste of milk given by pArvati ; वृषभ ध्वजेन= by bull, bannered one - by shiva ; पुत्रीकृतः= made as son, adopted as his own son."You are beholding this deodar tree in your font, isn't it... that tree is in the know of the taste of the milk flown out from the pot-like golden bosoms of the mother of स्कन्द, namely goddess पार्वति, because she herself nurtured it like a mother... hence the bull-bannered god शिव adopted this tree as his own son... [2-36]This tree is said to be the son of स्कन्द'स् mother, hence that tree becomes the younger brother of स्कन्द. As a mother, goddess पार्वति will have more fondness for this tree, because mothers love last sons more. For tree, it is water from the golden bosoms of that goddess, and for स्कन्द it is milk from the very same bosoms; thus it is applicable to both sons. श्लिष्त रूपक अलन्कार, श्लेष, उपम; a mixture of zeugmatic, metaphoric, transferred epithet etc.कंडूयमानेन कटम् कदाचित् वन्यत् द्विपेन उन्मथिता त्वक् अस्य |अथ एनम् अद्रेः तनया शुशोच सेनान्यम् आलिढम् इव असुर अस्त्रैः || 2-372-37 . कदाचित्= once ; कटम् कंडूयमानेन= temples, while scratching in itch ; वन्यत् द्विपेन= by wild, elephant ; अस्य= its - tree's - u.me; त्वक्= skin [bark of tree] ; उन्मथिता= pared off ; अथ अद्रेः तनया= then, mountain's, daughter पार्वति; असुर अस्त्रैः अल्लिढम्= demons, by missiles, touched [hurt] ; सेनान्यम्= commander, कुमारस्वामि - u.mA ; इव- like - sA.vA; एनम् शुशोच= about it, about tree, bemoaned; वन गज कट कन्डूय उन्मथित त्वक् =bimba; असुर अस्त्र आल्लिढ तनु= prati bimba; उन्मथित त्वक् /आल्लिढ तनु sA.dha."Once, this tree's bark is pared off while an itchy wild elephant rubbed its temples on it... then goddess पार्वति bemoaned about the tree, as if her own son कार्तिकेय is hurt by demons' missiles... [2-37]कार्तिकेय as a general of army can defend himself, but this sessile tree cannot, hence their mother worried more for this younger-son-like tree. The deodar tree is gigantic and the commander of armies will be the same in his attributes. Though there is no comparison between a boy and tallish tree, their adjectives compare in o and mo, and hence an upama with mixture of both.तदा प्रभृति एव वनद्विपानाम् त्रासार्थम् अस्मि अद्रि कुक्षौ |व्यापरित शूलभृता विधाय सिंहत्वम् अंक आगत सत्व वृत्ति || 2-382-38 . तदा प्रभृति एव= then, onwards, only ; वन द्विपानाम् त्रासार्थम्= wild, elephants, to scare off ; शूल भृता= by trident, wielder Shiva ; अंक आगत= at side, drawing nigh ; सत्व वृत्ति= prANinaH, AhAraH=beings, as food ; सिंहत्वम्= lion-hood ; विधाय= ordained to ; अहम् अद्रि कुक्षौ= I am, mountain's, in belly [in cave] ; व्यापरित= assigned."Only from then onwards god शिव, the wielder of trident, ordained me to attain lion-hood to scare off the wild elephants from this tree, and I am assigned to be in the cave of this mountain, sustaining myself on the beings that draw nigh of this tree... [2-38]This lion has to scare the 'elephants' and should not hunt any animals, as it has to devour only those the come near of the tree. God shiva forbids unnecessary killing of wild animals, but allows devouring only them that are served at mouth, like a cow's eating fodder.तस्य अलम् एषा क्षुधितस्य तृप्त्यै प्रदिष्ट काला परमेश्वरेण |उपस्तित षोणित पारणा मे सुर स्विषः चान्द्रमसी सुधा इव || 2-392-39 . तस्य= therefore ; परमेश्वरेण प्रदिष्ट= by Shiva, as specified ; काला उपस्थित= on time, arrived ; एषा षोणित पारणा= its [cow's,] blood, devouring ; उर द्विषः तृप्त्यै= gods, hater [planet राहु,] for satisfaction ; चान्द्रमसी सुधा इव= moon, nectarian shine, like ; क्षुधितस्य मे तृप्त्यै= hungered, as I am, for satisfaction ; अलम्= enough."Therefore, devouring the blood of cow that arrived on time as specified by god shiva is enough to satisfy a hungered one like me, like the nectarian moonshine that satisfies eclipsing planet राहु... [2-39]The comparison is not between the lion and eclipsing planet, but between the satisfaction in swilling blood and moonshine. The nectarian moonshine चान्द्रमसि सुध - u.mA ; cow's blood, गोरक्त हरण - u.me; तृप्तित्त्वम्, satisfying drinking - sA.dha; like - sA.vA; lion - o; सुर द्विष, eclipsing planet - mo; hungered ones, क्षुधितत्त्वम् ubhaya anvayi; and this is called स्तबकोपम - mixture of sylleptic, zeugmatic, object- mirrored objects.Astronomically राहु and केतु are the points on intersection of the moon's orbit and ecliptic of the earth, the points where eclipses are possible. Even in this sense the simile is complete. Planet राहु is fixed to a particular spot, so is the lion: the moon travels into राहु'स् area so has the cow come up. All this is adduced to prove a through knowledge of astronomy in our poet. - KMJoglekar.स त्वम् निवर्त्स्व विहाय लज्जाम् गोरोः भवान् दर्शित शिष्य भक्तिः |शस्त्रेण रक्ष्यम् यत् अशक्य रक्षम् न तत् यशः शस्त्र भृताम् क्षिणोति || 2-402-40 . सः त्वम्= such as you are, you ; निवर्त्स्व लज्जाम् विहाय= retrace your steps, sense of shame, shedding ; भवान्= you ; गोरोः दर्शित= in respect of mentor, shown ; शिष्य भक्तिः= disciple's, having sincerity ; यत् रक्ष्यम् शस्त्रेण= that which, be protected, by weapon ; अशक्य रक्षम्= impossible, to protect ; तत्= that [aspect] ; शस्त्र भृताम्= for weapon, wielders' ; यशः= prestige ; न क्षिणोति= not, lessen. अर्थान्तरन्यास अलन्कारThe action is justified by cause."Such as you are, you retrace your steps shedding any sense of shame, as you have shown your disciple's sincerity in respect of your mentor, and when that which ought to be protected is impossible to be protected by weapon, that impossibility will not lessen the prestige of weapon wielders... [2-40]इति प्रगल्भम् पुरुषाधिराजो मृगाधि राजस्य वचो निशंय |प्रत्याहत अस्त्रो गिरिश प्रभावात् आत्मनि अवज्ञाम् शिथिली चकार || 2-412-41 . पुरुष अधि राजः= for people, peerless, king - दिलीप; इति= this way ; मृग अधि राजस्य= animals, peerless, king's - lion's ; प्रगल्भम् वचोअः= bold confidence, words with ; निशंय= on hearing ; गिरिश प्रभावात्= shiva, by his impact ; प्रति आहत= back, struck - neutralised ; अस्त्रः= one having missile ; आत्मनि= in himself ; अवज्ञाम्= self-contempt ; शिथिली चकार= to ruin, made to.On hearing the words with bold confidence of the peerless king of animals, the peerless king of people started to ruin his self-contempt, as he has become one with neutralised weaponry, owing to the impact of god shiva. [2-41]प्रति अब्रवीत् च एनम् इषु प्रयोगे तत् पूर्व संगे वितथ प्रयत्नः |जडी कृतः त्र्यंबक वीक्षणेन वज्रम् मुमुक्षन् इव वज्रपाणिः || 2-422-42 . तत्- that; पूर्व संगे= प्रथमः प्रतिबन्धः=for the first time, being discomfitured, archaic - defeat in battle, setback ; इषु प्रयोगे वितथ प्रयत्नः= arrow, in letting out , failed, endeavour ; वज्रम् मुमुक्षन्= Thunderbolt, when releasing ; त्र्यंबक= tri ambaka=triple-eyed god, Shiva ; वीक्षणेन= by seeing ; जडी कृतः= stiffness, made to ; वज्रपाणिः इव= one who is still handling Thunderbolt in hand, namely Indra, like ; एनम्= to him, to lion ; प्रति अब्रवीत् च= in reply, said, also.And he, who for the fist time came to know what a failure is, either in a confrontation, or in shooting his arrow, and who remained static like indra with thunderbolt in hand when once that indra wanted to hurl thunderbolt at no less than god shiva, but immobilised just at a fiery glance of god shiva, spoke this in reply to lion. [2-42]The king o, - u.me; Indra co, - u.mA; like - cw; stiffening - c; failure in effort of king - o; failure of Indra's effort - mo. This episode of shiva stiffening indra's body is said in mahAbhArata, अनुशासनिक Parva, Ch. 160 - असूयतस्च शक्रस्य वज्रेण प्रहर्षितस्य... and in shiva purANA, बाहु स वज्रम् शक्रस्य कृधस्यात् स्थम्बहयत् प्रभुः. Hence analogies are drawn from mythologies and epics. Some refer नालायनि episode in mbh to this indra's inertness.संरुद्ध चेष्टस्य मृगेद्र कामम् हास्यम् वच तत् यत् अहम् विवक्षुः |अंतर्गतम् प्राण भृताम् हि वेद सर्वम् भवान् भावम् अतो अभिधास्ये || 2-432-43 . मृग इन्द्र= animals, lord of ; यत् वचः अहम् विवक्षुः= which, words, I, wish to say ; संरुद्ध चेष्टस्य= hindered gestures - one with suspended, animation ; [मम= mine] ; तत् वचः= those, words ; कामम् हास्यम्= highly, ludicrous ; भवान्= you are ; प्राण भृताम्= life, bearing [animate beings] ; अंतर्गतम् सर्वम् भावम्= inmost, all, sensibilities ; वेद हि= you know, indeed ; अतः= thereby ; अभिधास्ये= I submit to say."The words I wish to say, O, lordly lion, may perhaps look ludicrous because they are voiced by a person in suspended animation, yet I would like to make my submission because I am aware that you are indeed aware of all inmost sensibilities of all animate beings... [2-43]मान्यः सः मे स्तावर जंगमानाम् सर्ग स्थिति प्रत्यहार हेतुः |गुरोः अपि धनम् आहितग्नेः नश्यत् पुरस्तात् अनुपेक्षणीयम् || 2-442-44 . स्थावर जंगमानाम्= for sessile, mobile beings ; सर्ग स्थिति प्रत्यवहार= for creation, preservation, destruction ; हेतुः= cause of ; सः= he, Shiva ; मृ= to me ; मान्यः= venerable ; पुरस्तात् नश्यत्= in front, being perished ; आहितग्नेः= गो रूप धनम्=wealth in the form of cow ; गुरोः अपि= of mentor, even ; इदम् धनम्= this, wealth ; अन् उपेक्षणीयम्= can not, be disregarded [uncared-for.]"God shiva has my full respect because he is the cause of creation, preservation, and destruction of all sessile or mobile beings... but this cow too commands my respect because she is the wealth of my mentor in cow's form for his maintaining the ritual fire aglow... as such this cow cannot be allowed to be destroyed right before my eyes, either... [2-44]स त्वम् मदीयेन शरीर वृत्तिम् देहेन निर्वर्तयितुम् प्रसीद |दिन अवसान उत्सुक बाल वत्सा विसृज्य ताम् धेनुः इयम् महर्षेः || 2-452-45 . सः त्वम्= such as, you are ; मदीयेन देहेन= mine, with body ; शरीर वृत्तिम् निर्वर्तयितुम्= [your] body's, affair [hunger,] to manage [to satiate] ; प्रसीद= be pleased ; दिन अवसान उत्सुक= day, at end of, yearning for ; बाल वत्सा= young, calf ; महर्षेः इयम् धेनुः= sage's, this, cow ; विसृज्यताम्= be left off."Such as you are a hungered one, be pleased to satiate your hunger with my body letting off this cow of sage whose young calf would be yearning for her at the end of day..." The king said so to the lion. [2-45]अंधकारम् गिरि गवराणाम् दंष्ट्रा मयूखैः शकलानि कुर्वन् |भूयः सः भूतेश्वर पार्श्व वर्ती किंचित् विहस्य अर्थपतिम् बभाषे || 2-462-46 . अथ= then ; भूत ईश्वर= beings, lord - shiva's ; पार्श्व वर्ती= at side, following [servant of shiva] ; सः= he that lion ; गिरि गवराणाम् अंधकारम्= mountain's, cave's, darkness ; दंष्ट्रा मयूखैः शकलानि कुर्वन्= with large teeth's, sparkles, shredding [darkness] to pieces, making ; किंचित् विहस्य= a little, on laughing ; अर्थ पतिम्= to king ; भूयः बभाषे= again, spoke.Then that servant of god shiva laughed a little, making the darkness of that cave shred to pieces with the sparkles of his large teeth, again spoke to the king. [2-46]एकातपत्रम् जगतः प्रभुत्वम् नवम् वयः कांतम् इदम् वपुः च |अल्पस्य हेतोः बहु हातुम् इच्छन् विचार मूढः प्रतिभासि मे त्वम् || 2-472-47 . एक आतपत्रम्= under single, umbrella ; जगतः प्रभुत्वम्= world's, rulership ; नवम् वयः= blooming, youth ; कांतम् इदम् वपुः च= beautiful, this, body, also ; अल्पस्य हेतोः= for a trifle, reason ; बहु हातुम् इच्छन्= many, to forego, you desire ; त्वम् मे= you, to me ; विचार मूढः= to think, mindless ; प्रतिभासि= appear to be."Thy sway over the world with one umbrella unrivalled; thy blooming youth and this beautiful body of thine, all this thou desiring to forego for the sake of a trifle... thou appearest to me therefore to be devoid of prudence... [KMJ] [2-47]भूत अनुकंपा तव चेत् इयम् गौः एका भवेत् स्वस्तिमती त्वत् अंते |जीवन् पुनः शश्वत् उपप्लवेभयः प्रजाः प्रजानाथ पिता इव पासि || 2-482-48 . प्रजा नाथ= o, peoples, lord - u.me; तव भूत अनुकंपा चेत्= your, for living beings, compassion, if this [act of saving cow is] ; त्वत् अंते= your, after end ; इयम् एका गौः= this, single, cow ; स्वस्तिमती भवेत्= safe, she will be ; जीवन् पुनः= if be living, again ; पिता= father - u.mA; इव= like - sA.vA; प्रजाः उपप्लवे भयः= people, from calamities ; शश्वत् पासि= always, you can guard - sA.dha of father or king."If, however, this be thy compassion for living beings, this cow will be the single one rendered happy by your death: on the other hand if alive, oh thou refuge of the people, thou canst like a father always guard thy subjects from calamities... [KMJ] [2-48]A mixture of उपम with अनुगामित्व, श्लेष; sylleptic, and a sort of hendiadys - [Greek hen dia duoin 'one thing by two'] here it is one thing for two. The king co - u.me; father co - u.mA; like cw, sA.vA; guarding people c - sA.dha .अथ एक धेनुः अपराथ चंडात् गुरोः कृशानुप्रतिमात् बिभेषि |शक्यो अस्य मन्युः भवता विनेतुम् गाः कोटिशः स्पर्शयुता घट उध्नीः || 2-492-49 . अथ= then, otherwise ; एक धेनोः= [one who has] one, cow ; अपराथ= [by your] lapse ; चंडात्= furious wrath ; कृश अनुप्रतिमात्= blazing fire, one in comparison with ; गुरोः= of your mentor ; बिभेषि= are you scared ; अस्य मन्युः= his, anger ; घट= pot-like ; उध्नीः गाः= with udders, cows ; कोटिशः= crores, millions ; स्पर्शयुता= प्रतिपादयिता=by you proposed [donated] ; भवता= by you ; विनेतुम्= परिहर्तुम्=to requite ; शक्यः= possible."Otherwise, are you scared of the furious wrath of blazing fire-like mentor of yours at your lapse... if so, it is possible for you to requite his anger by donating millions of cows with pot-like udders to him... [2-49]तत् रक्ष कल्याण परंपराणाम् भोक्तारम् ऊर्जस्वलम् आत्म देहम् |महीतल स्पर्शन मात्र भिन्नम् बुद्धम् हि राज्यम् पदम् ऐन्द्रम् आहुः || 2-502-50 . तत्= therefore ; कल्याण परंपराणाम् भोक्तारम्= golden oppurtunities, a series of, supposed to enjoy ; ऊर्जस्वलम्= vigorous ; आत्म देहम् रक्ष= your, body, protect ; ऋद्धम् राज्यम्= affluent, kingdom ; मही तल स्पर्शन मात्र भिन्नम्= earth's, surface, touching, just by, different ; ऐन्द्रम् पदम्= Indra's, stature ; आहुः हि= they say, indeed; अलन्कार - लोकोक्ति, a maxim."Therefore, protect your vigorous body that is supposed to enjoy a series of golden opportunities; rulership on an affluent kingdom, they say, is as good as indra-hood, while the only difference between these two lies in placing their feet; a king treads on earth, whereas indra will not... so said that lion to the king. [2-50]एतावत् उक्त्वा विरते मृगेन्द्रे प्रतिस्वनेन अस्य गुहा गतेन |शिलोच्चयो अपि क्षितिपालम् उच्चैः प्रीत्या तम् एव अर्थम् अभाषतेव || 2-512-51 . मृगेन्द्रे= by lord of animals ; एतावत् उक्त्वा= up to here, on saying ; विरते सति= when paused ; गुहा आगतेन= from cave, came ; अस्य प्रतिस्वनेन= that lion's, by echo ; शिलोच्चयः अपि= mountain, even ; प्रीत्या= fondly ; क्षिति पालम्= to king ; तम् एव अर्थम्= that, alone, meaning ; उच्चैः अभाषत= loudly, said [re-echoed]; इव= as if.When that lord of animals paused on saying up to here, even that mountain loudly but fondly re-echoed the same meaning to the king though the echo of lion's words emerged from its cave. [2-51]निशंय देव अनुचरस्य वाचम् मनुष्य देवः पुनः अपि उवाच |धेन्वा तत् अध्यासित कातर अक्ष्या निरीक्ष्यमाणः सुतराम् दयालुः || 2-522-52 . देव अनुचरस्य वाचम् निशंय= god's, attendant's, words, on hearing ; मनुष्य देवः= peoples', god - दिलीप; तत्= that lion ; अध्यासित= AkramaNam=besieged ; कातर अक्ष्या= with appalled, glances ; धेन्वा निरीक्ष्यमाणः= by cow, while being seen ; सुतराम् दयालुः= extremely, compassionate [king] ; पुनः अपि [इदम्]उवाच= again, even, [this,] said.On hearing the words of god shiva's attendant while that cow stared him with an appalled glance, that extremely compassionate godlike ruler of people, दिलीप, said this further. [2-52]क्षतात् किल त्रायत इति उदग्र क्षत्रस्य शब्दो भुवनेषु रूढः |राज्येन किम् तद् विपरीत वृत्तेः प्राणैः उपक्रोश मलीमसैः वा || 2-532-53 . उदग्र क्षत्रस्य शब्दः= celebrated, Kshatriya, word ; क्षतात् त्रायत इति= from ruination, rescues, thus [as said] ; भुवनेषु रूढः किल= in worlds, established, conventionally ; तत् विपरीत वृत्तेः= for that, contrariwise, one who conducts himself ; राज्येन= with kingdom ; उपक्रोश मलीमसैः प्राणैः वा= by disrepute, blemished, with lives [existence,] or; किम् [प्रयोजनम्]=what, [is the use.]"The celebrated word 'क्षत्रिय' is defined as 'one who rescues anything from ruination...' and it is established in the worlds likewise, conventionally... that being the case, of what use is a kingdom, or an existence vitiated with disesteem to someone who conducts himself contrariwise to that definition... [2-53]कथम् नु शक्यो अनुनयो महर्षेः विश्राणनात् अस्य पयस्विनाम् |इमाम् अनूनाम् सुरभेः अवेहि रुद्र ओजसा तु प्रहर्तुम् त्वया अस्याम् || 2-542-54 . महर्षेः अनुनयः नु= sage's, pacification, or else ; अन्य पयस्विनाम् विश्राणनात्=ओथेर्, मिल्च् चोव्स्, ब्य् एन्दोविन्ग्; कथम् शक्यः=how, possible ; इमाम् सुरभेः= this cow, than KAmadhenu [her mother] ; अ नूनाम्= not, less ; अवेहि= you know thus ; अस्याम् त्वया प्रहर्तुम् तु= her, by you, lay seize, but ; रुद्र ओजसा= by Shiva's, power."Or else, how is it possible to pacify that great sage by endowing thousands of other cows while this cow is no less than her mother कामधेनु... by the way, you should realise that your seizing her owes only to the powers of shiva, but not your own... [2-54]सा इयम् मया स्वदेह अर्पण निष्क्रयेण न्याय्या मया मोइचयितुम् भवत्तः |न पारणा न विहता तव च एवम् भवेत् अलुप्तः च मुनेः क्रियार्थः || 2-552-55 . सा इयम्= such as, she is ; मया स्व देह अर्पण निष्क्रयेण= by me, own body, by giving away, as barter ; भवत्तः मोइचयितुम् न्याय्या= from you, releasing, apt, ought to be ; एवम्= that way ; तव पारणा= your, food ; विहता न स्यात्= deprived, not, it will be ; मुनेः क्रिय अर्थः च= sage's, ceremonies, means, also ; अ लुप्तः भवेत्= not, mitigated, it will be."Such as she is, she ought to be released from you by giving away my body to you in barter, and in that way neither you will be deprived of your food after fasting, nor this cow, the only means of ceremonies of sage gets ruined... [2-55]भवान् अपि इदम् परवान् अवैति महान् हि यत्नः तव देवदारौ |स्थातुम् नियोक्तुर् न हि शक्यम् अग्रे विनाश्य रक्षम् स्वयम् अक्सतेन || 2--562-56 . परवान् भवान् अपि= dependant - employee, you, even ; इदम् अवैति= this, you are aware ; तव देवदारौ यत्नः महान् हि= your, in the matter of deodar tree, effort, great, indeed ; रक्षम् विनाश्य= a trust that to be protected, allowing to destroy ; स्वयम्= personally ; अ क्सतेन= un, injured ; नियोक्तुः अग्रे स्थातुम् न हि शक्यम्= employer's, in presence, to stand, not, indeed, possible."Your effort in the matter of keeping guard to deodar tree is indeed great... nevertheless, as a employee you too are aware that it is impossible to stand one's own employer on allowing a defendable trust entrusted to you to get destroyed, at the same time yourself remaining personally uninjured... [2-56]किम् अपि अहिंस्यः तव चेत् महतो अहम् यशः शरीरे भव मे दयालुः |एकांत विध्वंसिषु मत् विधानम् पिंडेषु अनास्था खलु भौतिकेषु || 2-572-57 . किम् अपि= on the other hand ; अहम् तव= I am, to you ; अ हिंस्यः= not, killable one ; मतः चेत्=देएम्, इफ़्; मे यशः शरीरे= my, on reputation, in the form of my body ; दयालुः भव= merciful, you be ; मत् विधानम्= my, sort of people ; एक अंत= one, ending [at some time, emphatically] ; विध्वंसिषु= perishable ones ; भौतिकेषु पिंडेषु= on physical, bodies ; अन् आस्था खलु= not, interestedness, indeed."On the other hand, if you deem that I am not your kill, you be merciful on my reputation in the form of this body, as people of my sort indeed have perfect indifference in regard to the physical bodies that are emphatically perishable... [2-57]संबन्धम् आभाषण पूर्वम् आहुः वृत्तः स नौ संगतयोः वनान्ते |तत् भूतनाथ अनुग न अर्हर्सि त्वम् संबन्धिनो मे प्रणयम् विहन्तुम् || 2-582-58 . संबन्धम् आभाषण पूर्वम्= friendship, conversation, antecedent ; आहुः= they say ; सः= that [conversation] ; वन अन्ते संगतयोः= forest, interior, met ; नौ वृत्तः= [in between] us, happened ; तत्= therefore ; भूतनाथ अनुग= o, Shiva's, follower ; संबन्धिनः मे प्रणयम्= a friend, my, friendship [request] ; विहन्तुम् त्वम् न अर्हर्सि= despoil, you, not, apt of."Conversation is antecedent to any friendship, and that conversation has happened in between us in this interior of forest, therefore, oh, the follower of shiva, it will be inapt of you to despoil the request of a friend like me... So said dilIpa to that lion. [2-58]तथा इति गाम् मुक्तवते दिलीपः सद्यः प्रतिष्टम्भ विमुक्त बाहुः |स न्यस्त शस्त्रो हरये स्वदेहम् उपानयत् पिण्डम् इव आमिषस्य || 2-592-59 . तथा इति= so be it [lion said] ; गाम् मुक्तवते= cow, one releasing or, on releasing the words 'so be it' - as गाम् also means speech ; हरये= by lion ; सद्यः= instantly ; प्रतिष्टम्भ विमुक्त बाहुः= from seizure, released, arm ; सः दिलीपः= he, that दिलीप; न्यस्त शस्त्रः= laying aside, arms [bow and arrows] ; स्व देहम्= his, body ; आमिषस्य पिण्डम् इव= flesh, ball, as if ; उपानयत्= lead forth.On lion's saying 'so be it' the seizure of his arm is instantly released, and then laying his bow and arrows aside that king दिलीप led forth his body towards the lion as though it is just a ball of flesh. [2-59]तस्मिन् क्षणे पालयितुः प्रजानाम् उत्पृश्यतः सिंह निपातम् उग्रम् |अवांमुखस्य उपरि पुष्प वृष्टिः पपात विद्याधर हस्त मुक्ता || 2-602-60 . तस्मिन् क्षणे= at the very, moment ; उग्रम् सिंह निपातम्= dreadful, lion's, swoop ; उत् पश्यतः= up, seeing [expecting] ; अवां मुखस्य= one with downcast, face ; प्रजानाम् पालयितुः= people, protector of - king ; उपरि= on him ; विद्याधर हस्त मुक्ता= vidyAdharA celestials, from their hands, released ; पुष्प वृष्टिः पपात= flowers, rain of, fell.While the king is with downcast face expecting a dreadful swoop of the lion on him, at that very moment, there fell a shower of flowers released from the hands of celestials, called विद्याधरा-s. [2-60]उत्तिष्ट वत्से इति अमृतायमानम् वचो निश्ंयो उथितम् उथित सन्|ददर्श राजा जननीम् इव स्वाम् गाम् अग्रतः प्रसविणीम् न सिंहम् || 2-612-61 . राजा= he that king ; उत्तिष्ट वत्से इति= rise, my son, thus as ; उथितम्= which arose [ words] ; अमृतायमानम् वचः निश्ंयः= nectarian, voice, on listening ; उथितः सन्= he when rose up ; अग्रतः= before him ; प्रसविणीम् गाम्= [milk] trickling, cow ; स्वाम् जननीम् इव= his own, mother, like ; ददर्श= seen ; न सिंहम्= but not, lion.The king on listening a nectarian voice that arose there saying, 'rise, my son' whereat he rose his face and lo! he beheld in his front not the lion but the cow almost like his own mother trickling affection, like milk.तम् विस्मितम् धेनुः उवाच साधो मायाम् मया उद्भाय परीक्षितो असि |ऋषि प्रभावात् मयि न अंतको अपि प्रभुः प्रहर्तुम् किम् उत अन्य हिंस्राः || 2-622-62 . विस्मितम् तम्= amazed, to him [to king] ; धेनुः उवाच= cow, spoke ; साधो= o, kind-hearted one ; मया मायाम् उद्भाव्य= by me, illusion, on generating ; परीक्षितः असि= examined, you are ; ऋषि प्रभावात्= by sage's, potentiality ; मयि= on me ; अंतकः अपि= Terminator, even ; प्रहर्तुम्= to hurt ; न प्रभुः= not, capable one ; अन्य हिंस्राः किम् उत= other, about assaulters, why, tell.Then the cow spoke to that amazed king, oh, kind-hearted one, on generating an illusion I have just examined you... by the grace of the potentiality of the sage even the Terminator himself is incapable of hurting me, then why tell about any other assaulter... [2-62]भक्त्या गुरौ मयि अनुकंपया च प्रीतास्मि ते पुत्र वरम् वृणीष्व |न केवलानाम् पयसाम् प्रसूतिम् अवेहि माम् कामदुघाम् प्रसन्नाम् || 2-632-63 . पुत्र= o, son ; गुरौ भक्त्या= on mentor, by reverence ; मयि अनुकंपया च= in me, by compassion, also ; ते= by you ; प्रीतास्मि= I am gladdened ; वरम् वृणीष्व= boon, beseech ; माम् केवलानाम् पयसाम् प्रसूतिम्= me, just as, milk, producing [cow] ; न अवेहि= not, know; prasannAm [mAma] kAmadughAm [avehi]=being pleased, [me,] as granter of any desired object, [thus you know.]"I am gladdened by your reverence towards your mentor, and for the compassion you have on me as well, oh, son, do not take me just as a milk producing cow, but know me as a granter of any desired object when pleased... as such, you may seek a boon from me... [2-63]ततः समानीय स मानित अर्थी हस्तौ स्व हस्त आर्जित वीर शब्दः |वंशस्य कर्तारम् अनंत कीर्तिम् <स्पन् च्लस्स्="स्पन्१">sudakshiNA</स्पन्>याम् तनयम् ययाचे || 2-642-64 . ततः= then ; मानित अर्थी= honoured one, by [his] supplicants ; स्व हस्त आर्जित= own, hand, earned ; वीर शब्दः= brave one, title of ; सः= he that दिलीप; हस्तौ समानीय= both hands [palms,] bringing together [adjoining] ; वंशस्य कर्तारम्= lineage's, founder ; अनंत कीर्तिम्= with everlasting, renown ; तनयम्= for a son ; सुदक्षिणायाम्= in [his queen] सुदक्षिण; ययाचे= begged for.Then, he who is honoured by his supplicants since he is no spurner of their requests, and he who earned his title of bravest one with hands-on experiences, that दिलीप adjoined those very palms and begged for a son with everlasting renown and who would be the founder of his own lineage, through lady सुदक्षिण. [2-64]The idea of 'founder of lineage' may be observed. Not that a new lineage s needed, but a lineage attributable to his son's name is requested. So far, this solar dynasty is known as इक्ष्वकु, ककुत्स्थ-s etc. But, from now on the lineage is identifiable with the name of still greater son of दिलीप. A real father wants a better life and fame to his son, than his own.संतान कामाय तथा इति कामम् राज्ञे प्रतिश्रुत्य पयस्विनी सा |दुग्ध्वा पयः वत्र पुटे मदीयम् पुत्र उपभुंक्ष्व इत् तम् अदेश || 2-652-65 . सा पयस्विनी= she, that milch cow ; संतान कामाय राज्ञे= progeny, desiring, for king ; तथा इति= so, be it ; कामम् प्रतिश्रुत्य= boon, on promising ; पुत्र= o, son ; मदीयम् पयः= my, milk ; पत्र पुटे दुग्ध्वा= in leafy, vessel, on milking ; उपभुंक्ष्व= drink ; इति तम् अदेश= thus, him, instructed.That cow said, 'so be it...' promising the boon for progeny as desired by the king, she further said to him instructing, "oh, son, milk my milk in a leafy vessel and drink it..." [2-65]वत्सस्य होमार्थ विधेः च शेषम् गुरोः अनुज्ञाम् अधिगंय मातः |ऊधस्यम् इच्छामि तव उपभोक्तुम् षष्टांशम् उर्व्या इव रक्षितायाः || 2-662-66 . मातः= o, mother ; वत्सस्य= calf's [share of your milk] ; होमार्थ विधेः च= sacrificial, in rites used, also ; शेषम्= residual [milk] ; तव ऊधस्यम्= your, milk ; रक्षितायाः उर्व्या= being protected, earth's ; षष्ट अंशम् इव= sixth, part, as if ; गुरोः अनुज्ञाम् अधिगंय= mentor's, permission, on getting ; उपभोक्तुम् इच्छामि= to partake, I wish to."O, mother, I wish to partake your milk, out of whatever remains after your calf has had its drink, and whatever may be used in sacrificial ceremonies, as if it is the sixth part of the levy on produce of land under my charge, that too on getting the permission of my mentor... [2-65]The milk of this cow - o; sixth part of produce as share of the king - co; commonality is in - mentor, where it is a syllepsis for father and teacher. A king takes his father's permission to rule next and takes sixth part of produce. Any person takes permission from a sage to enjoy any produce in a hermitage.इत्थम् क्षितीशेन वशिष्ट धेनुः विज्ञापिता प्रीततरा बभूव |तत् अन्विता हैमवतात् च कुक्षेः प्रत्यायौ आश्रमम् अश्रमेण || 2-672-67 . इत्थम्= this way ; क्षिति ईशेन विज्ञापिता= by land, lord, by king, when requested ; वशिष्ट धेनुः= Vashishta's, cow ; प्रीततरा बभूव= highly gladdened, she became ; तत् अन्विता= him, along with [followed by king] ; हैमवतात् कुक्षेः= from Himalayan, mountain, belly [cave] ; अ श्रमेण= un, strained [pace] ; आश्रमम् प्रति यायौ च= hermitage, towards, started for, also.This way when she is requested by the king that cow of sage vashiShTa is highly gladdened and started from the cave of Mt. Himalayan towards hermitage, followed by that king दिलीप, in an unstrained pace. [2-67]तस्या प्रसन्न इन्दु मुखः प्रसादम् गुरुः कृपाणाम् गुरवे निवेद्य |प्रहर्ष चिह्न अनुमितम् प्रियायै शशंस वाचा पुनरुक्तम् एव || 2-682-68 . प्रसन्न इन्दु मुखः= pleasant, moonlike, with face ; गुरुः नृपाणाम्= leader, of kings ; प्रहर्ष चिह्न अनुमितम्= extreme joy, by signs, inferable ; तस्या प्रसादम्= her cow's,] favour ; पुनः उक्तम् एव वाचा= again, said [repeated,] only, by words ; गुरवे निवेद्य= to mentor, on submitting ; प्रियायै शशंस= to his beloved, narrated.Then that leader of the kings with his face like that of a pleasant moon returned to hermitage and made submission to his mentor about the favour graced by the cow, which of course, is inferable by the signs of his extreme joy; then he even narrated the same to his beloved wife सुदक्षिण which looked, as it were, a repeated verbalisation of his joyousness. [2-68]स नंदिनी स्तन्यम् अनिन्दित आत्मा सद् वत्सलो वत्स हुत अवशेषम् |वपौ वशिष्ठेन कृत अभ्यनुज्ञः शुभ्रम् यशोमूर्तिम् इव अतितृष्णः || 2-692-69 . अ निन्दित= un, blemished ; आत्मा= soul [character] ; सत् वत्सलः= for good-natured beings, a patron of ; सः= such as दिलीप is ; वशिष्ठेन= by Vashishta ; कृत अभि अनुज्ञः= made, permission ; वत्स= calf's [drink] ; हुत= oblatory [share of milk] ; अवशेषम्= remnant of ; नंदिनी स्तन्यम्= नन्दिनि's, milk ; शुभ्रम् मूर्तिम् यशः इव= immaculate, incarnation, of renown, as if that milk is; अति तृष्णः= much, thirstily ; वपौ= drank.When vashiShTa permitted him to take नन्दिनि's milk after calf's suckling is over, and after the share of oblatory milk is set apart, that king with unblemished character and a patron of good-natured beings, thirstily drank the remnant of it, as if it were the immaculate incarnation of his own renown in the form of his son. [2-69]प्रातः यथोक्त व्रत पारणान्ते प्रस्थनिकम् स्वस्त्ययनम् प्रयुज्य |तौ दंपती स्वाम् प्रति राजधानीम् प्रस्थापयामास वशी वशिष्ठः || 2-702-70 . वशी= self-controlled ; वशिष्ठः= Vashishta ; प्रातः= early morning ; यथोक्त= as said ; व्रत पारण= vow [in attending the cow,] repast [of cow's milk] ; अन्ते= at completion ; प्रस्थनिकम्= befitting for a travel ; स्वस्त्ययनम्= benediction ; प्रयुज्य= on conferring ; तौ दंपती= they two, the couple ; स्वाम् राजधानीम् प्रति= their own, capital, towards ; प्रस्थापयामास= started to send.On the next early morning that self-controlled sage vashiShTa conferring a benediction befitting for a travel started to send that royal couple to their capital, for the king has completed the said vow of attending the cow and took repast of her milk. [2-70]प्रदक्ष्णीकृत्य हुतम् हुताशम् अनंतरम् भर्तुः अरुन्धतीम् च |धेनुम् स वत्साम् च नृपः प्रतस्थे सन्मंगल उदग्रतर प्रभावः || 2-712-71 . नृपः= king दिलीप; हुतम् हुताशम्= blazing after offering oblations, to such Ritual-fire ; भर्तुः= husbander, one who looks after, Vashishta ; अनंतरम्= after that ; अरुन्धतीम् च= to Lady Arundhati, also ; स वत्साम् धेनुम् च= with, calf, to cow also ; प्रदक्ष्णीकृत्य= on circumambulating ; सन्मंगल= auspicious ceremonies ; उदग्रतर= augmented ; प्रभावः= having such glory [ दिलीप] ; प्रतस्थे= set out.Then that king दिलीप whose glory is augmented by performing auspicious ceremonies, on circumambulating the blazing Ritual-fire in which oblations are offered by his mentor, and then to his mentor vashiShTa together with lady अरुन्धति, and then to cow नन्दिनि along with her calf, set out on his journey to his capital. [2-71]श्रोत्राभिराम् धन्विना रथेन स धर्मपत्नी सहितः सहिष्णुः |ययौ अनुद्घात सुखेन मार्गे स्वेन एव पूर्णेन मनोरथेन || 2-722-72 . धर्मपत्नी= true-wife ; सहितः= along with ; सहिष्णुः= self-possessed ; सः= he that दिलीप; श्रोत्र अभिराम धन्विना= for listening, pleasant, in sound ; मार्गे अनुद्घात सुखेन= in path, not bumpy, comfortably ; रथेन= by a chariot ; पूर्णेन स्वेन मनोरथेन इव= fulfilled, his own, desire [being transported] as if ; ययौ= travelled.Thereafter that self-possessed king दिलीप travelled on the return path along with his proper wife in a chariot whose sound is pleasant to listening and which is not so bumpy, as if he is being transported by his own fulfilled desire. [2-72]तम् आहित औत्सुक्यम् अदर्शनेन प्रजाः प्रजार्थ कर्शित अंगम् |नेत्रैः वपुः तृप्तिम् अनाप्नुवद्भिः इव नवोदयम् नाथम् इव औषधीनाम् || 2-732-73 . अ दर्शनेन= by non, appearance [by staying in forest for long time, and slowly faded moon towards no moon day, कृष्ण पक्ष चन्द्र] ; आहित औत्सुक्यम्= caused, enthusiasm ; प्रज अर्थ= progeny, as purpose ; व्रत कर्शित अंगम्= by vow undertaking, emaciated, limbs [limbs of king, and reduced phases of moon] ; नव उदयम्= newly, risen [king in capital, and newly risen moon] ; तम्= him, दिलीप; प्रजाः= subjects ; तृप्तिम्= satisfaction ; अन् आप्नुवद्भिः= not, getting ; नेत्रैः= with eyes ; औषधीनाम् नाथम्= for medicinal plants, king [moon] ; इव= like ; वपुः= drank [enjoyed moonshine; sheSopacAra upamAna upmeya mishraNa.]On his entry into capital, his subjects so far made eager by having had no view of him in all these days, as with the moon in black-fortnight; but at present became enthusiastic to behold him entering the city, as with the moon entering into white-fortnight; yet beholding him whose limbs are emaciated owing to the vow he undertook for progeny, as with the moon waning in black-fortnight; those subjects of his swilled him with their eyes alone, as with their swilling new-born moon on his reeme3rgence. [2-73]पुरंदरश्रीः पुरम् उत्पताकम् प्रविश्य पौरैः अभिनन्द्यमानः |भुजे भुजगेन्द्र समान सारे भूयः स भूमेः धुरम् आससज्ज || 2-742-74 . पुरंदर श्रीः= having Indra's, prosperity like prosperity ; सः= he ; पौरैः अभिनन्द्य मानः सन्= by citizens, being extolled ; उत् पताकम्= high [flying] flags ; पुरम्= city with ; प्रविश्य= on entering ; भुजगेन्द्र समान सारे= lord of serpents, equalling, in strength ; भुजे= on such shoulders ; भूमेः धुरम्= earth's [kingdom's,] burden ; भूयः आससज्ज= again, set up.He whose prosperity is akin to that of indra's glory entered into city where flags are flying high, where citizens are extolling him that high, and then that king dilIpa once more took up the burden of his kingdom onto his shoulders that are similar in strength to the hoods of the lord of serpents, आदिशेष, that bears the burden of whole globe on his hoods. [2-74]अथ नयन समुथितम् ज्योतिः अत्रेः इव द्यौःसुर सरित् इव तेजो वह्नि निष्टूतम् ऐशम् |नरपति कुल भूपत्यै गर्भम् आधत्त राज्ञीगुरुभिः अभिनिविष्टम् लोकपाल अनुभावैः || 2-752-75 . अथ= then ; द्यौः= sky [that bears] ; अत्रेः नयन समुथितम्= Sage Atri's, from eyes, emerged ; ज्योतिः= luminary - viz., the moon; इव=like ; सुर सरित्= from heavenly, River Ganga ; वह्नि निष्टूतम्= by Fire-god, deposited ; ऐशम् तेजः= shiva's, blaze [embryo of KArtikeya]; इव- like ; राज्ञी= queen ; नर पति= peoples, lord दिलीप's ; कुल भूत्यै= dynasty, for prosperity ; गुरुभिः लोकपाल अनुभावैः= great, deities presiding quarters, with their characteristics ; अभिनिविष्टम् गर्भम्= inlaid [with such characteristics,] foetus ; आधत्त= she bore, became pregnant with.Then, the queen सुदक्षिण bore the foetus inlaid with the great rulership characteristics of deities presiding the cardinal directions of the world, namely लोक=पाला-स्, for the prosperity of the dynasty of king दिलीप, just as the sky holds the cool luminary, namely the moon, emerged from the eyes of sage अत्रि; as well as the heavenly river गन्ग once sustained for sometime in her womb-like stream an embryo issued forth by shiva and deposited therein by fire-god, because it is the uncontainable and blazing embryo of कार्तिकेय, whereby that neonate is endowed with the qualities of rulership of लोक-पाला-स्, pleasance of the moon and the blaze of कात्रिकेय. [2-75]The subject of this canto is progeny of दिलीप; hence the poet started it with auspicious word अथ and is now concluding with the same word.u.mA 1] दिवि, sky; 2] सुर-नदि, ganga; u.me सुदक्षिण; सा. dha dhAraNa , bearing pregnancy which is also anugAmi dharma ;- sA.vA इव like.bimba - महित लोकपाल अभिनिविष्टम्; prati-bimba १] अत्रि नयन समुथितम् - moon emerged from sage अत्रि'स् eyes; 2] वह्नि निष्टूत्यम् - embryo deposited by firegod ; bimbam गर्भम्; prati-bimbam १] ज्योतिस्स्, २] ईश्वर तेजस्.To one object सुदक्षिण two objects, heaven and Divine River Ganga are compared. Hence her sacrosanct personality is depicted, hence this is अनेकोपम. उक्तै प्रौढि रूप ओजस् and this is commixture of many parisions, syllepses, mirrored objects etc having अनुगामित्व, बिम्ब प्रति बिम्ब भाव मिश्रण, and there is धर्मैक्यत unification of commanlities.According to the similes used that queen will beget a son who will be कान्तिमान्, प्रजा आह्लादक्र, पराक्रमशालि, महिअश्वर्य संपन्न etc. The moon is believed to have emerged from the eye-water of Sage Atri, after his prolonged ascesis, as in हरिवंश, 25th Ch. The emergence of कार्तिकेय or कुमर is according to Valmiki Ramayana, and readers are requested to ref. to 37th Ch. of Bala Kanda of our Valmiki Ramayana for details.Though each expression of kAlidAsa gives raise to such details, we are incorporating them here and there owing to our constraints. This may please be viewed as our inadequacy, rather blaming it on that great poet. If this work is fated for readership, loads and loads of such explanations can be incorporated recorded by many from ages.